Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Research Article Volume 7 Issue 1

Provisional Classification of Wild Edible Fruits Based on their Nutrient Profiles

Francis Omujal1,2*, Peter Ochan1,3, Paul Okullo2,5, Patrick E Ogwang2,4, Clement Akais Okia2,6, Sheila Natukunda3 and William Olupot2

1Natural Chemotherapeutics Research institute, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda
2Nature and Livelihoods, Kampala, Uganda
3School of Food Technology, Nutrition and Bioengineering, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
4Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda
5National Agricultural Research Organizations, Nabuin Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Soroti, Uganda
6Muni University, Arua, Ugand

*Corresponding Author: Francis Omujal, Natural Chemotherapeutics Research institute, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda.

Received: November 01, 2022; Published: December 07, 2022

Abstract

Nutritional analyses of food have mainly focused on determining the nutritional composition. Few concentrate on their nutritional value. This study provisionally classified ten wild edible fruit types (WEF) growing in the Teso sub region in eastern Uganda by their nutritional value. Fruit pulps of Carissa spinarum, Saba comorensis, Sclerocarya birrea. Flacourtia indica, Vitex doniana, Strychnos spinosa Ximenia americana., Vangueria infausta, Vitellaria paradoxa and Physalis minima. were analyzed for proximate and mineral composition, and their recommended dietary allowance (RDA) per 100g were calculated. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HLA), Principal Components Analysis (PCA), and Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) were used to classify the fruits based on their nutrient compositions. Then the pulps were profiled for nutrients composition using the nutritious food index (NFI) model. The HLA returned two and three clusters at linkage distances of <25 and 15 respectively, showing that these clusters were nutritionally distinct from each other. The PCA returned five components which accounted for 86.27% of the variability in the nutritional composition. The variability in Principle Component I was explained primarily by differences in moisture, total energy and total carbohydrates and that in Principle Component 2 mainly by dissimilarities in amounts of Zn and Fe. Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) generated three Canonical Discriminant Functions (CDF), the first of which explained 99.2% of the total variation of the clusters with total carbohydrate and potassium quantities as the major contributors (Wilks’ lambda: Λ = 0.173 and 0.041 for carbohydrates and potassium respectively). The nutrient density profiles had F. indica and P. minima as the top-ranked with their overall nutritional values largely contributed by protein, potassium and dietary fibre. These results suggest that classification of WEFs based on nutritional composition is possible, and these could be used in their promotion among communities in public health and nutrition education.

Keywords: Indigenous Fruits; Nutrient Profile; Nutritional Composition; Hierarchical Dendrogram Clustering; Principal Component Analysis; Provisional Classification

References

  1. Ezbakhe Fatine and Agustí Pérez-Foguet. "Child mortality levels and trends”. Demographic Research 43 (2020): 1263-1296.
  2. Bille PG., et al. “Value addition and processed products of three indigenous fruits in Namibia”. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development1 (2013): 7192-7212.
  3. Leterme Pascal., et al. “Chemical composition and nutritive value of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in rats”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture9 (2005): 1505-1512.
  4. Magaia Telma., et al. “Dietary fiber, organic acids and minerals in selected wild edible fruits of Mozambique”. Springerplus 1 (2013): 1-8.
  5. Achaglinkame Matthew Atongbiik., et al. “Nutritional characteristics of four underutilized edible wild fruits of dietary interest in Ghana”. Foods 3 (2019): 104.
  6. Magaia Telma., et al. “Proximate analysis of five wild fruits of Mozambique”. The Scientific World Journal 2013 (2013).
  7. Von Braun Joachim., et al. “Food Systems-definition, concept and application for the UN food systems summit”. Science and Innovation 27 (2021).
  8. Darmon Nicole., et al. “A nutrient density standard for vegetables and fruits: nutrients per calorie and nutrients per unit cost”. Journal of the American Dietetic Association12 (2005): 1881-1887.
  9. Drewnowski Adam and Victor Fulgoni III. "Nutrient profiling of foods: creating a nutrient-rich food index”. Nutrition Reviews1 (2008): 23-39.
  10. Olupot William. "Parklands, pasturelands, paddy rice fields, and coffee gardens as existing or potential agricultural socio-ecological production landscapes”. Socio-ecological Production Landscapes and Seascapes (SEPLS) in Africa (2016): 91.
  11. Olupot William. "Socio-ecological production landscape definition and issues assessment–a case of Uganda’s drylands”. In chapter 10, UNU-IAS and IGES (Eds.), Enhancing knowledge for better management of socio-ecological production landscapes and seascapes (SEPLS) (Satoyama Initiative Thematic Review vol.1). Satoyama Initiative Thematic Review (2015): 79-89
  12. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1999”. 17th Edition . Washington (1999).
  13. Cogoi Laura., et al. “Nutritional and phytochemical study of Ilex paraguariensis fruits”. Journal of Chemistry 2013 (2013).
  14. Okullo JBL., et al. “Proximate and mineral composition of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa CF Gaertn) fruit pulp in Uganda”. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development11 (2010).
  15. Drewnowski. “Concept of a nutritious food: toward a nutrient density score”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 4 (2005): 721-732.
  16. GC Rampersaud. “A comparison of nutrient density scores for 100% fruit juices”. Journal of Food Science4 (2007): S261-S266.
  17. V Azais-Braesco., et al. “Nutrient profiling: comparison and critical analysis of existing systems”. Public Health Nutrition5 (2006): 613-622.
  18. “Defining nutrient density: development and validation of the nutrient rich foods index”. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 28.4 (2009): 421S-426S.
  19. Drewnowski A. “The Nutrient Rich Foods Index helps to identify healthy, affordable foods”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition4 (2010): 1095S-1101S.
  20. Marta Bianchi., et al. “Systematic Evaluation of Nutrition Indicators for Use within Food LCA Studies” 12.21 (2020): 8992.

Citation

Citation: Francis Omujal., et al. “Provisional Classification of Wild Edible Fruits Based on their Nutrient Profiles". Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 7.1 (2023): 39-48.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2023 Francis Omujal., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.316

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 20, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US