Acta Scientific Nutritional Health

Review Article Volume 1 Issue 1

Causes and Complication of Obesity among the Children

Alamgir Khan1*, Salahuddin Khan1, Muhibullah Khan Marwat1, Syed Zia-Ul-Islam1, Manzoor Khan2 and Amir Junaid Shah3

1 Department of Sports Science and Physical Education, Gomal University, Pakistan
2 Faculty of Education, Hazara University Manshera, Pakistan
3Athletics Coach Aitchison Collage Lahore Punjab, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author: Alamgir Khan, Department of Sports Science and Physical Education, Gomal University, Pakistan.

Received: May 19, 2017; Published: May 24, 2017

Citation: Alamgir Khan., et al. “Causes and Complication of Obesity among the Children”. Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 2.1 (2017): 02-05.


Abstract

   This research study was to assess the perception of obese peoples regarding the causes and complication of obesity. The population of this particular research was comprised of twenty (20) obese adults. The data were collected from the respondents through questionnaire. The collected data were tabulated and analyzed by using percentage as statistical tool. After analysis, the researcher arrived at conclusion that the main factors caused obesity among the adults includes: heredity, eating more without exercise, Social cultural condition and unawareness about health principles similarly obesity increases the risk of developing a number of serious health conditions such as coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, cancer, sleep apnea, gallstones, osteoarthritis and infertility or irregular periods groups.

Keywords: Causes; Complication; Obesity; Children

What is Obesity?

  The incidence of obesity has been growing progressively over the last several decades. Obesity is a severe health problem and a very huge number of people having the complication of obesity. Obesity effect the complete functional capacity of the body. A person has excess body fat in this condition. According to Rachael Rettner [1] at world level, the rates of obesity are on the rise. Since 1980, the global obesity rate has nearly doubled, and there are now over 200 million obese men and nearly 300 million obese women.

Causes of obesity

  The problem of obesity has been rising progressively over the last several decades and is currently at unprecedented levels. Research evidence shows that more than 68% of US adults are considered overweight, and 35% are obese [2]. The author further stated that this increase has occurred across every age; sex, race, and smoking status and the reason or cause of this dramatic raise in the ratio of obese people is not fully understood.

  According to World Health Organization (WHO) obesity is rapid growing problem across the globe. Obesity is causative agent of type 2 diabetes because it causes insulin resistance and is associated with physical inactivity. A person become obese when he get to much energy and not utilize it properly [3].

  The main factors responsible for childhood obesity are high use of unhealthy food, parental responsibility, modern technology and the mass media. To avoid and to prevent the children from the adverse effects of obesity it is needed to engage the children in physical activities as well as to control diet or to provide them diet with little caloric values [4].

  Research based evidence shows that psychological and behavioural are the causative agents of obesity among the children. For preventing the problem of obesity, it is necessary for parents to provide diet to their children according to their needs [5].

  According Bray [6] lack of physical activities and heredity both caused obesity among the children similarly the problem of obesity also found more in female as compared to male because female have low participation in physical activities as compared to male.

  Numerous factors caused obesity among the child. According to khan (2017) the main factors caused obesity among the children is:
1. Heredity
2. Eating more without exercise
3. Social cultural condition
4. Unawareness about health principles

  The complication of obesity arise when a person regularly eat more calories than they burn. Similarly, a number of factors can contribute to obesity such as lack of physical activity, lack of sleep, genetics and certain medications that slow calorie burn, increase appetite or cause water retention, such as corticosteroids, antidepressants or some seizure medications [1]. Obesity caused so many health problems such as risk of diabetes, heart disease, stroke, arthritis, etc. For preventing, the above stated health problems as obese one it is needed to loss 5 to 10 percent of your weight can delay or prevent some of these diseases. For example, that means losing 10 to 20 pounds if you weigh 200 pounds (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH), 2015).

  According to the (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH), 2017) [7] Environmental factors that promote obesity include:
1. Oversized food portions
2. Busy work schedules that don’t allow for physical activity
3. Lack of access to healthy foods at supermarkets
4. Lack of safe places for physical activity

Complications

  According to Bales and Buhr [8] obesity is a life-threatening health problem.it increases the risk of developing a number of serious health conditions such as coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, type, cancer, sleep apnea, gallstones, osteoarthritis and infertility or irregular periods. The people with complication of obesity always feel un-satisfied while doing the routine activities.

  Obesity complications are numerous and some of them can shorten your life span. It is associated with many medical complications that can reduce a person’s quality of life and in some cases, shorten a person’s life [8]. According to Goldner [9] Metabolic bone disease is the long-term complication of obesity surgery.

  Bray [10] stated that obesity is a serious health problem associated with obesity:
1. Hypertension
2. Atherosclerosis
3. Diabetes
4. Cancer.

  The author further says that less well-known complications of obesity include:
1. Hepatic steatosis
2. Gallbladder disease
3. Pulmonary function impairment
4. Endocrine abnormalities
5. Obstetric complications
6. Trauma to the weight-bearing joints, gout, cutaneous disease, proteinuria, increased hemoglobin concentration, and possibly immunologic impairment

  Obesity and overweight have many causes, including genetic, metabolic, behavioral and environmental. The rapid increase in prevalence suggests that behavioral and environmental influences predominate, rather than biological changes [11].

  The problem of obesity is in raise in all over the developed and developing countries of the world. It is shown from the evidence of research that overweight at long run lead the masses toward maternal and fetal morbidity. Furthermore, overweight is a risk factor for gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and the risk is higher in subjects with overt obesity. For controlling and minimizing the problem among the masses, prenatal care of children, tight monitoring of weight gain, and long-term follow-up could minimize the social and economic consequences of pregnancies in overweight women [12].

Measuring Obesity

  For measuring the obesity of the body, a person need to calculate his/her body mass index (BMI) which is a simple index of weight-forheight that is commonly used in classifying overweight and obesity in adult populations and individuals.

  WHO [13] Suggested the following level of body fats:
1. BMI between 25 and 29.9 as overweight
2. BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese
3. BMI below 18.5 is considered underweight
4. BMI between 18.5 to 24.9 is considered a healthy weight

Calculation of BMI

  A person’s weight in kilograms is divided by the square of the height in meters (kg/m2). BMI provides the most useful populationlevel measure of overweight and obesity as it is the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults but it is merely a rough guide becauseit may not correspond to the same degree of fatness in different individuals.

Causes and Complication of Obesity among the Children Presentation and Analysis of Data
S.No Statement Yes % No % Total
1. Do your parents have the problem of obesity 12 60% 08 40% 20
2. Is your diet is according to the nature of your daily life activities 17 85% 03 05% 20
3. Do you perform regular exercise 05 05 25% 15 75% 20
4. Do you feel yourself relax 19 95% 01 05% 20
5. Do you have any psychological problem 19 95% 01 05% 20
6. Do you have the problem of improper sleeping 15 75% 05 25% 20
7. Are you have any problem of respiratory process 16 80% 05 20% 20
8. Do you have any problem of heart 16 80% 05 20% 20
9. Do you have awareness about the remedies of obesity 18 90% 02 10% 20
10. Do you contact any health expert about obesity 20 100% 00 0% 20
11. Do health expert suggest you proper diet 20 100% 00 0% 20
12. Do health expert suggest you daily exercise 20 100% 00 0% 20
13. Do health expert suggest you medicine 10 50% 10 50% 10
14. Are you follow the suggestion of health expert 20 100% 00 0% 20
15. Are your feeling after using after following the suggestion or advice of the health expert 20 100% 00 0% 20

Table 1: Showing the Causes and Complications of Obesity among the Adults.

Findings and Discussion

  Based on analysis the researcher found that main factors caused obesity among the children includes heredity, eating more without exercise, social cultural condition and unawareness about health principles. Such emerging concept was supported by Bray [6] by indicating that lack of physical activities and heredity both caused obesity among the children similarly the problem of obesity also found more in female as compared to male because female have low participation in physical activities as compared to male.

  It is also find out by the researcher that obesity increases the risk of developing a number of serious health conditions such as coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, type, cancer, sleep apnea, gallstones, osteoarthritis and infertility or irregular periods. The findings of the study conducted by Bales and Buhr [8] obesity is a life-threatening health problem.it increases the risk of developing a number of serious health conditions such as coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, type, cancer, sleep apnea, gallstones, osteoarthritis and infertility or irregular periods. The people with complication of obesity always feel unsatisfied while doing the routine activities.

  It is indicated by the present study that obesity is associated with many medical complications that can reduce a person’s quality of life and in some cases, shorten a person’s life. Result of the study conducted Goldner [9] shows that metabolic bone disease is the long-term complication of obesity surgery [14].

Conclusions

  Based on the findings, the researcher concluded that heredity, social cultural condition, overeating and unawareness about the health principles are causative agents of obesity among the children. Similarly, it concluded that obesity negatively affects the health of the masses including both gender and all age groups.

Bibliography

  1. Rachael Rettner, Senior Write. live science (2015).
  2. Wright SM and Aronne LJ. “Causes of obesity”. Abdominal Radiology 37.5 (2012): 730-732.
  3. PH Wilding J. “Causes of obesity”. Practical Diabetes International 18.8 (2001): 288-292.
  4. Hardus PM., et al. “Public perceptions of the causes and prevention of obesity among primary school children”. International Journal of Obesity 27.12 (2003): 1465-1471.
  5. Ogden J and Flanagan Z. “Beliefs about the causes and solutions to obesity: a comparison of GPs and lay people”. Patient Education and Counseling 71.1 (2008): 72-78.
  6. Bray GA., et al. “A survey of the opinions of obesity experts on the causes and treatment of obesity”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55.1 (1992): 151S-154S.
  7. National Heart, Lung, And Blood Institute. Us Department of Health and Human Services (2017).
  8. Bales CW and Buhr G. “Is obesity bad for older persons? A systematic review of the pros and cons of weight reduction in later life”. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 9.5 (2008): 302-312.
  9. Goldner WS., et al. “Severe metabolic bone disease as a long-term complication of obesity surgery”. Obesity Surgery 12.5 (2002): 685-692.
  10. Bray GA. “Complications of obesity”. Annals of Internal Medicine 103 (1985): 1052-1062.
  11. Malnick SD and Knobler H. “The medical complications of obesity”. QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians 99.9 (2006): 565-579.
  12. Galtier-Dereure F., et al. “Obesity and pregnancy: complications and cost”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71.5 (2000): 1242s-1248s.
  13. WHO. What is obesity (2015).
  14. Must A and Strauss RS. “Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity”. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 23.2 (1999): S2-S11.

Copyright: © 2017 Alamgir Khan., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



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