An Effective Anticancer Nano-approach for Melanoma and Breast Cancers Using Annona muricate Gold Nanoparticles
Muhammad Imran1, Ghaleb Husseini2, Nahid Awad2, Vinod Paul2, Babiker M El-Haj3 and Heyam Saad Ali4*
1International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Chemical Engineering American University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE
3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University of Science and Technology of Fujairah, Fujairah, UAE
4Pharmaceutics Department, Pharmacy College, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
*Corresponding Author: Heyam Saad Ali, Pharmaceutics Department, Pharmacy College, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
August 08, 2021; Published: August 18, 2021
Chemotherapy is preferred for the treatment and management of cancer; however, its efficacy is hindered by the off-target side effects of the currently used synthetic drugs. Thus, anticancer drugs with higher safety and efficacy from renewable resources are needed. Nanostructured particles can enhance the drug specificity for target tissues, thus enhancing their clinical efficacy and safety. The synthesis of Annona muricata gold nanoparticles is reported for enhancing its anti-cancer potential. Green nanoparticles were synthesized through reduction of gold with Annona muricata followed by their extensive characterization through atomic force microscope, UV-spectrophotometer, zetasizer, and FT-R. They were investigated for their anticancer activity against two melanoma and one breast cancer cell line. The nanoparticles were rounded in shape and were monodispersed with 89.34 ± 2.76 nm size and - 22.41 ± 0.27 zeta potential. FT-IR study showed the hydroxyl and carbonyl groups of Annona muricata were involved in the stabilization of nanoparticles. The extract anticancer activity significantly improved against all cancer cells upon loading on the surfaces of the synthesized NPs. The findings suggest that Annona muricata gold nanoparticles can lead to promising therapeutic anticancer results, however, to reveal their anticancer effectiveness at molecular levels, further in vivo studies are required.
Keywords: Annona muricata; Gold Nanoparticles; Synthesis; Anticancer Activity
- Bray F., et al. “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries”. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 68 (2018): 394-424.
- Bray F., et al. “Cancer Incidence in Five Continents: inclusion criteria, highlights from Volume X and the global status of cancer registration”. International Journal of Cancer 137 (2015): 2060-2071.
- Ginsburg O., et al. “The global burden of women’s cancers: a grand challenge in global health”. Lancet 389 (2017): 847-860.
- Torre L A., et al. “Global cancer incidence and mortality rates and trends — an update”. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 25 (2016): 16-27.
- Loney T., et al. “An analysis of the health status of the United Arab Emirates: the 'Big 4' public health issues”. Global Health Action 6 (2013): 20100.
- Harbeck N., et al. “Breast cancer”. Nature Reviews Disease Primers 5 (2019): 66.
- Holt CP. “The scope of the UAE cancer problem”. Emirates Medical Journal3 (1985): 163-166.
- Al-Shamsi H and S Alrawi. “Breast cancer screening in the United Arab Emirates: is it time to call for a screening at an earlier age?” Journal of Cancer Prevention and Current Research 3 (2018): 123-126.
- Radwan H., et al. “The epidemiology of cancer in the United Arab Emirates: Systematic Review”. Medicine50 (2018).
- Mahate A and Hamidi S. “Frontier efficiency of hospitals in United Arab Emirates: an application of data envelopment analysis”. Journal of Hospital Administration 1 (2015): 7-17.
- Boumahdi S and de Sauvage FJ. “The great escape: tumour cell plasticity in resistance to targeted therapy”. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 1 (2020): 39-56.
- Galletti G., et al. “Mechanisms of resistance to systemic therapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer”. Cancer Treatment Reviews 57 (2017): 16-27.
- Harrington K., et al. “Optimizing oncolytic virotherapy in cancer treatment”. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 9 (2019): 689-706.
- Riesco-Martinez M., et al. “Resistance to metronomic chemotherapy and ways to overcome it”. Cancer Letter 400 (2017): 311-318.
- Zhang H., et al. “Recombinant oncolytic adenovirus expressing a soluble PVR elicits long-term antitumor immune surveillance”. Molecular Therapy - Oncolytics 20 (2020): 12-22.
- Yeung KS., et al. “Herb-Drug Interactions in Cancer Care”. Oncology (Williston Park) 10 (2018): 516-520.
- Singh D., et al. “Herbs-are they safe enough? An overview”. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 10 (2012): 876-898.
- Boon H and Wong J. “Botanical medicine and cancer: a review of the safety and efficacy”. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy12 (2004): 2485-2501.
- Werneke U., et al. “Potential health risks of complementary alternative medicines in cancer patients”. British Journal of Cancer2 (2004): 408-413.
- Haefeli WE and Carls A. “Drug interactions with phytotherapeutics in oncology”. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology 3 (2014): 359-377.
- Solowey E., et al. “Evaluating medicinal plants for anticancer activity”. Scientific World Journal 2014 (2014): 721402.
- Yao S., et al. “Development and evaluation of novel tumor-targeting paclitaxel-loaded nano-carriers for ovarian cancer treatment: in vitro and in vivo”. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research 37 (2018): 29.
- Izzo AA and Ernst E. “Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: a systematic review”. Drugs15 (2001): 2163-2175.
- SBM Ahmed., et al. “Studying the ShcD and ERK interaction under acute oxidative stress conditions in melanoma cells”. The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 112 (2019): 123-133.
- Ovadje P., et al. “Advances in the research and development of natural health products as main stream cancer therapeutics”. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2015): 751348.
- Wang Y., et al. “Antitumor effects of immunity-enhancing traditional Chinese medicine”. Biomed Pharmacotherapy 121 (2020): :109570.
- Omara T., et al. “Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Management of Cancer in Uganda: A Review of Ethnobotanical Surveys, Phytochemistry, and Anticancer Studies”. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2020 (2020): 3529081-3529081.
- BM El-Haj and S Ahmed. “Metabolic-Hydroxy and Carboxy Functionalization of Alkyl Moieties in Drug Molecules: Prediction of Structure Influence and Pharmacologic Activity”. Molecules 8 (2020): 1937.
- Yuan H., et al. “The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products”. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) 5 (2015): 559.
- Zorofchian Moghadamtousi S., et al. “Annona muricata leaves induce G₁ cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway in human HCT-116 and HT-29 colon cancer cells”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 156 (2014): :277-289.
- Siti Mariam., et al. “Exploring the Leaves of Annona muricata L. as a Source of Potential Anti-inflammatory and Anticancer Agents”. Frontiers in Pharmacology 9 (2018): :661.
- Syed Najmuddin SU., et al. “Anti-cancer effect of Annona Muricata Linn Leaves Crude Extract (AMCE) on breast cancer cell line”. BMC Complement Alternative Medicine1 (2016): 311.
- Joo D., et al. “Annona muricata L. extracts decrease melanogenesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells”. Biomed Dermatology 1 (2017): 10.
- George VC., et al. “Quantitative assessment of the relative antineoplastic potential of the n-butanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata Linn. in normal and immortalized human cell lines”. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2 (2012): 699-704.
- Yu-Min Koa., et al. “Annonacin induces cell cycle-dependent growth arrest and apoptosis in estrogen receptors- α-related pathways in MCF-7 cells”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology3 (2011): : 1283-1290.
- Wang B., et al. “Novel PEG-graft-PLA nanoparticles with the potential for encapsulation and controlled release of hydrophobic and hydrophilic medications in aqueous medium”. International Journal of Nanomedicine 6 (2011): :1443-1451.
- Wicki A., et al. “Nanomedicine in cancer therapy: challenges, opportunities, and clinical applications”. Journal of Control Release 200 (2015): 138-157.
- Marchetti C., et al. “Targeted drug delivery via folate receptors in recurrent ovarian cancer: a review”. OncoTargets Therapy 7 (2014): 1223-1236.
- Fang J., et al. “The EPR effect: unique features of tumor blood vessels for drug delivery, factors involved, and limitations and augmentation of the effect”. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 63 (2011): 136-151.
- Sun XL., et al. “Improved tumor uptake by optimizing liposome based RES blockade strategy”. Theranostics 7 (2017): 319-28.
- Imran Ali., et al. “Advances in nanoparticles as anticancer drug delivery vector: Need of this century”. Current Pharmaceutical Design 26 (2020): 1637-1649.
- BM El-Haj., et al. “Linking Aromatic Hydroxy Metabolic Functionalization of Drug Molecules to Structure and Pharmacologic Activity”. Molecules9 (2018): 2119.
- Zhang X., et al. “Rabdosiarubescens Linn: green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and their anticancer effects against human lung cancer cells A549”. Artificial Cells1 (2019): 2171-2178.
- K Rao., et al. “Gum tragacanth stabilized green gold nanoparticles as cargos for Naringin loading: A morphological investigation through AFM”. Carbohydrate Polymer 174 (2017): 243-252.
- Imran M., et al. “Glycoside-based niosomal nanocarrier for enhanced in-vivo performance of Cefixime”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 1-2 (2016): 122-132.
- SBM Ahmed., et al. “A nuclear export signal and oxidative stress regulate ShcD subcellular localisation: A potential role for ShcD in the nucleus”. Cellular Signalling1 (2014): 32-40.
- Sun B., et al. “Anticancer activity of green synthesised gold nanoparticles from Marsdeniatenacissima inhibits A549 cell proliferation through the apoptotic pathway”. Artificial Cells1 (2019): 4012-4019.
- Sharma D., et al. “Biogenic synthesis of nanoparticles: A review”. Arabian Journal 8 (2019): 3576-3600.
- Botteon CEA., et al. “Biosynthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using Brazilian red propolis and evaluation of its antimicrobial and anticancer activities”. Scientific Report 11 (2021): 1974.
- Sarvamangala D., et al. “Green synthesis of AgNP’S using Alternanthera Sessilis leaf extract [a natural source for ocular therapy]”. International Journal of Innovative Science Engineering and Technology 3 (2014): 15000-15010.
- Bhau BS., et al. “Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles from the leaf extract of Nepenthes khasiana and antimicrobial assay”. Advanced Materials Letters 6 (2015): 55-58.
- I Ali., et al. “Preliminary investigation of novel tetra-tailed macrocycle amphiphile based nano-vesicles for amphotericin B improved oral pharmacokinetics”. Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology 46 (2017): S1204-S1214.
- Sharma D., et al. “Biogenic synthesis of nanoparticles: a review”. Arabian Journal of Chemistry8 (2019): 3576-3600.
- Shukla R., et al. “Biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles and their endocytotic fate inside the cellular compartment: a microscopic overview”. Langmuir 21 (2005): 10644-10654.
- Dhas TS., et al. “Sargassum myriocystum mediated biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles”. Spectrochimica Acta, Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopt 99 (2012): 97-101.
- Heyam Saad Ali., et al. “Gold nanoparticles in cancer diagnosis and therapy”. Book: Metal Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery and Diagnostic Applications 43-58.
- Vijayan R., et al. “Indigofera tinctoria leaf extract mediated green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles and assessment of their anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant and catalytic properties”. Artificial Cells 46 (2018): 861-871.
- Ahmed SBM and Prigent SA. “Insights into the Shc family of adaptor proteins”. 12 (2017): 1-17.
- Fahradyan A., et al. “Updates on the Management of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer (NMSC)”. Healthcare (Basel) 5 (2017): 82.
- Chen JS., et al. “Inhibition mechanism of koji acid on polyphenol oxidase”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58 (1991): 79-110.
- Wang L., et al. “Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles from Scutellariabarbata and its anticancer activity in pancreatic cancer cell (PANC-1)”. Artificial Cells1 (2019): 1617-1627.