Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Norm Encapsulated Zinc Phthalocyanine Nanoparticles as Photo Dynamic Therapeutic Agents
Tarun Mohan1,2*, Hemant Kumar1, L. Krishna Bharat3 and Indrajit Roy1
1Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
2Government Degree College, Gairsain, Uttarakhand, India
3Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM” (FSAC VIM), Moscow, Russia
*Corresponding Author: Tarun Mohan Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi, India. E-mail: email@example.com and Indrajit Roy Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
May 25, 2021; Published: June 09, 2021
Nanosized organically modified silica (NORM) particles are promising platforms for encapsulating/conjugating active agents for petitions in bioimaging, light activated therapies and drug delivery. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an encouraging and significant therapeutic technique in which light is used to activate photosensitizer molecules, that further reacts with molecular oxygen to produce highly reactive and cytotoxic singlet oxygen. Localized PDT can lead to selective killing of malicious cancer cells. Herein, we have synthesized zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) encapsulated NORM particles (ZnPc/NORM), in which ZnPc acts as the photosensitizer and NORM particles act as a carrier and also stabilizer of ZnPc. Further characterization of nanoparticles has been done by various techniques to study the morphology, structure and optical properties. ABMDMA dye was used to evaluate the photodynamic property of ZnPc/NORM particles. These nanoparticles have great potential for being a PDT agent as these nanoparticles significantly generate singlet oxygen on irradiation with laser light, along with some hyperthermia (rise in temperature). In vitro studies have been carried out using adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells to study the anticancer PDT efficacy of ZnPc/NORM.
Keywords: NORM; Zinc Phthalocyanine; Photodynamic Therapy; Hyperthermia; Cell Viability Assay
- Rejeeth C., et al. “Cisplatin-functionalized silica nanoparticles for cancer chemotherapy”. Cancer Nanotechnology6 (2013): 127-136.
- Mi Y., et al. “Application of nanotechnology to cancer radiotherapy”. Cancer Nanotechnology1 (2016): 1-16.
- Singhal S., et al. “Nanotechnology applications in surgical oncology”. Annual Review of Medicine 61 (2010): 359-373.
- Choudhary S., et al. “Photodynamic therapy in dermatology: a review”. Lasers in Medical Science 6 (2009): 971-980.
- Dai T., et al. “Photodynamic therapy for localized infections—state of the art”. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy3-4 (2009): 170-188.
- Ackroyd R., et al. “The history of photodetection and photodynamic therapy”. Photochemistry and Photobiology5 (2001): 656-669.
- Juarranz Á., et al. “Photodynamic therapy of cancer. Basic principles and applications”. Clinical and Translational Oncology3 (2008): 148-154.
- Castano A P., et al. “Mechanisms in photodynamic therapy: part one—photosensitizers, photochemistry and cellular localization”. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy4 (2004): 279-293.
- Wang K., et al. “Self-assembled IR780-loaded transferrin nanoparticles as an imaging, targeting and PDT/PTT agent for cancer therapy”. Scientific Reports1 (2016): 1-11.
- Miura N and Shinohara Y. “Cytotoxic effect and apoptosis induction by silver nanoparticles in HeLa cells”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications3 (2009): 733-737.
- Pan Y., et al. “Gold nanoparticles of diameter 1.4 nm trigger necrosis by oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage”. Small 18 (2009): 2067-2076.
- Fabris C., et al. “Photosensitization with zinc (II) phthalocyanine as a switch in the decision between apoptosis and necrosis”. Cancer Research20 (2001): 7495-7500.
- Tuncel S., et al. “A set of highly water-soluble tetraethyleneglycol-substituted Zn (II) phthalocyanines: synthesis, photochemical and photophysical properties, interaction with plasma proteins and in vitro phototoxicity”. Dalton Transactions16 (2011): 4067-4079.
- Makhseed S., et al. “Water-soluble non-aggregating zinc phthalocyanine and in vitro studies for photodynamic therapy”. Chemical Communications 95 (2013): 11149-11151.
- Barbon A., et al. “Photoexcited spin triplet states in zinc phthalocyanine studied by transient EPR”. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 23 (2001): 5342-5347.
- Anderson C Y., et al. “A comparative analysis of silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizers for in vivo photodynamic therapy of RIF‐1 tumors in C3H mice”. Photochemistry and Photobiology3 (1998): 332-336.
- Ping J T., et al. “Synthesis I and optimization of ZnPc-loaded biocompatible nanoparticles for efficient photodynamic therapy”. Journal of Materials Chemistry B 4.25 (2019): 4482-4489.
- Qin J., et al. “Facile synthesis of dual-functional nanoparticles co-loaded with ZnPc/Fe3O4 for PDT and magnetic resonance imaging”. Materials Research Bulletin 114 (2019): 90-94.
- Wang S., et al. “Synthesis of hemoglobin conjugated polymeric micelle: a ZnPc carrier with oxygen self-compensating ability for photodynamic therapy”. Biomacromolecules 9 (2015): 2693-2700.
- Roy I., et al. “Ceramic-based nanoparticles entrapping water-insoluble photosensitizing anticancer drugs: A novel drug− carrier system for photodynamic therapy”. Journal of the American Chemical Society26 (2003): 7860-7865.
- Samanta M., et al. “Facile synthesis of ZnPc nanoflakes for cold cathode emission”. RSC Advances48 (2016): 42739-42744.
- Wan Y., et al. “Facile in-situ solvothermal method to synthesize ZnPc–MWCNTs composites with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity”. Ceramics International 42 (2): 2425-2430.
- Gomes A J., et al. “Photobiological and ultrastructural studies of nanoparticles of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-containing bacteriochlorophyll-a as a photosensitizer useful for PDT treatment”. Drug Delivery3 (2005): 159-164.
- Zeisser-Labouèbe M., et al. “Hypericin-loaded nanoparticles for the photodynamic treatment of ovarian cancer”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics1-2 (2006): 174-181.
- Tang W., et al. “Photodynamic Characterization and In Vitro Application of Methylene Blue‐containing Nanoparticle Platforms”. Photochemistry and Photobiology2 (2005): 242-249.
- Tang W., et al. “Encapsulation of methylene blue in polyacrylamide nanoparticle platforms protects its photodynamic effectiveness”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications2 (2008): 579-583.
- Konan-Kouakou YN., et al. “In vitro and in vivo activities of verteporfin-loaded nanoparticles”. Journal of Controlled Release1 (2005): 83-91.
- Ricci-Júnior E and Marchetti J M. “Preparation, characterization, photocytotoxicity assay of PLGA nanoparticles containing zinc (II) phthalocyanine for photodynamic therapy use”. Journal of Microencapsulation5 (2006): 523-538.
- Chatterjee D K., et al. “Nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy: an emerging paradigm”. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews15 (2008): 1627-1637.
- Agnihotri S., et al. “Synthesis of Nickel Phthalocyanine Encapsulated ORMOSIL Nanoparticles as Efficient Phototherapeutic Agent”. Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine1 (2018): 22-26.
- Yurt F., et al. “Investigation of in vitro PDT activities of zinc phthalocyanine immobilised TiO2 nanoparticles”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics1-2 (2017): 467-474.
- Yang T., et al. “Ultrastable near‐infrared conjugated‐polymer nanoparticles for dually photoactive tumor inhibition”. Advanced Materials31 (2017): 1700487.
- Roy I. “Gold Nanoparticle-Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy from Photosensitiser-Entrapped Ormosil Nanoparticles”. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology11 (2019): 6942-6948.
- Muehlmann L A., et al. “Aluminium-phthalocyanine chloride nanoemulsions for anticancer photodynamic therapy: Development and in vitro activity against monolayers and spheroids of human mammary adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells”. Journal of Nanobiotechnology1 (2015): 1-11.
- Song M R., et al. “Zeolitic imidazolate metal organic framework-8 as an efficient pH-controlled delivery vehicle for zinc phthalocyanine in photodynamic therapy”. Journal of Materials Science 534 (2018): 2351-2361.
- Peng J., et al. “Hollow silica nanoparticles loaded with hydrophobic phthalocyanine for near-infrared photodynamic and photothermal combination therapy”. Biomaterials32 (2013): 7905-7912.
- Sethi K and Roy I. “Organically modified titania nanoparticles for sustained drug release applications”. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 456 (2015): 59-65.
- Jain S K., et al. “Calcium silicate-based microspheres of repaglinide for gastroretentive floating drug delivery: Preparation and in vitro characterization”. Journal of Controlled Release2 (2005): 300-309.
- Sharma S., et al. “Magnetic nanoscale metal–organic frameworks for magnetically aided drug delivery and photodynamic therapy”. New Journal of Chemistry20 (2017): 11860-11866.