Acta Scientific Paediatrics (ISSN: 2581-883X)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 8

Intelligence Quotient of Primary School Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Nigeria

Ekemini Joseph Hogan*, Echey Ijezie, Mkpouto Udeme Akpan and Kevin Bassey Edem

Department of Paediatrics, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Ekemini Joseph Hogan, Department of Paediatrics, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria.

Received: May 10, 2021; Published: July 05, 2021

Citation: Ekemini Joseph Hogan., et al.“Intelligence Quotient of Primary School Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Nigeria". Acta Scientific Paediatrics 4.8 (2021): 06-10.


Background: ADHD is the most common and persistent neuro-behavioral disorders of childhood, affecting children in both the developed and developing world. Children with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to have high intelligence quotients (IQ) in some studies while others have reported a low IQ in association with ADHD. No known studies investigating the relationship between ADHD and IQ were found for Nigeria and there is a paucity of such studies in Sub Saharan Africa.

Objective: To compare intelligent quotient of children with ADHD and children without ADHD.

Methods: The Draw A Person Test (DAPT) was administered to determine the IQ of 146 pupils aged 6 - 12 years recently diagnosed with ADHD using the Vanderbilt Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Diagnostic Teacher Rating Scale. Pupils were drawn from 12 primary schools in Ikot Ekpene, Nigeria. The DAPT was also administered to 146 age/sex matched controls without ADHD.

Result: The mean IQ score of the pupils with ADHD was significantly lower than that of controls (IQ score of pupils with ADHD = 74.7 ± 29.2, Controls = 103.5 ± 33.0, p = 0.0001). Fifty-four percent of the pupils with ADHD who had low IQ had the hyperactive subtype of ADHD.

Conclusion: The mean IQ of the pupils with ADHD was significantly lower than that of controls. Policies should be put in place to implement the screening test for ADHD under the school health programme for the early identification of pupils with ADHD.


Keywords: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Intelligence Quotients (IQ); Draw A Person Test (DAPT)


  1. Natosha RC and Peter J. “Attention –Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder”. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF(editors). Nelson Textbook of paediatrics, (18th edition). Philadelphia, Saunder Elsevier 30 (2007): 108-112.
  2. Miller TW., et al. “Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in African American children: what can be concluded from the past ten years?” Clinical Psychology Review1 (2009): 77-86.
  3. American Psychiatric Association. “Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®)”. American Psychiatric Publication (2013).
  4. Moon S. “Cultural perspectives on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A comparison between korea and the United States”. Journal of International Business Studies 1 (2012): 1-11.
  5. Loe IM and Feldman HM. “Academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD”. Journal of Pediatric Psychology6 (2007): 643-654.
  6. Mahone EM., et al. “Effects of IQ on executive function measures in children with ADHD”. Child Neuropsychology1 (2002): 52-65.
  7. Stein MA., et al. “Adaptive skills dysfunction in ADD and ADHD children”. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry4 (1995): 663-670.
  8. Mayes SD and Calhoun SL. “WISC-IV and WISC-III profiles in children with ADHD”. Journal of Attention Disorders3 (2006): 486-493.
  9. Alikor EAD., et al. “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among School Children in Port Harcourt, Nigeria”. American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience2 (2015): 23-29.
  10. Martinez-Badía J and Martinez-Raga J. “Who says this is a modern disorder? The early history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder”. The World Journal of Psychiatry4 (2015): 379.
  11. Bruce K., et al. “Mental Disability”. In: Kleigman, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF (editors). Nelson textbook of paediatrics. (19th edition). Philadelphia, Saunders, Elsevier 33 (2009): 122-129.
  12. Katusic MZ., et al. “Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in children with high IQ: results from a population-based study”. Journal of Developmental and Behavioural Pediatrics: JDBP2 (2011): 103.
  13. Marland SP. “Report to the United States by the US Commissioner of Education”. US Government Printing Office (1972).
  14. Skogli EW., et al. “ADHD in girls and boys–gender differences in co-existing symptoms and executive function measures”. BMC Psychiatry1 (2013): 1.
  15. Busch B., et al. “Correlates of ADHD Among Children in Pediatric and Psychiatric Clinics”. Psychiatric Services9 (2002): 1103-1111.
  16. Kaplan BJ., et al. “The IQs of Children with ADHD Are Normally Distributed”. Journal of Learning Disabilities5 (2000): 425-432.
  17. Alloway TP and Cockcroft K. “Working memory in ADHD: A comparison of British and South African children”. Journal of Attention Disorders 4 (2014): 286-293.
  18. Bakare MO. “Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and disorder (ADHD) among African children: a review of epidemiology and co-morbidities”. African Journal of Psychiatry5 (2012): 358-361.
  19. Wolraich M. “Vanderbilt ADHD diagnostic teacher rating scale.(VADTRS)”. American Academy of Paediatric and National Initiative for Children’s Healthcare Quality (2003).
  20. Goodenough F. “Measurement of intelligence by drawing”. New York: World Book Co (1926).
  21. Ebigbo P and Izuora G. “Draw-a-person test: Standardization, validation and guidelines for use in Nigeria”. Enugu: Chuka printing press 26 (1981): 7-12.
  22. Akpan MU., et al. “Behavioural disorders among primary school pupils in Uyo, Nigeria”. African Health Sciences2 (2010): 154-158.
  23. Zigler H Der Mann. Zeicher Test Muenster – West fallen, A schendof (1975).
  24. Nastaran Ahmadi MA., et al. “Neurocognitive Profile of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders: A comparisons between subtypes”. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry4 (2004): 197-202.

Copyright: © 2021 Ekemini Joseph Hogan., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US