Acta Scientific Pharmacology

Review Article Volume 3 Issue 10

Pharmacognostic and Pharmacological Aspects on Tabernaemontana divaricata Plant

Sadhana Raut*, Poonam Shende, Nupur Gargate and Harshad Kapare

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Sinhgad College of Pharmacy, Vadgaon (bk), Pune, Maharashtra, India
2Department of Pharmaceutics, Dr.D. Y. Patil Pharmaceutical Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India

*Corresponding Author: Sadhana Raut, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Sinhgad College of Pharmacy, Vadgaon (bk), Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Received: June 06, 2022 Published: September 24, 2022


Tabernaemontana divaricata is a shrub commonly found in many parts of the world. Flowers of the plant have a common ‘pinwheel’ shape, giving it the vernacular name “pinwheel flower”. This plant is highly rich in alkaloids like Conophylline, Isovoacristine, α-amyrin acetate, β-amyrin acetate etc. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry also revealed that it contains chemical compounds like vitamin D, vitamin A aldehyde, vitamin E, phytol and many more. Due to the presence of chemical constituents like alkaloid and non-alkaloids, Tabernaemontana divaricata is used to treat various diseases. It has also been proved that the plant has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, anti-microbial and wound healing properties. Studies have found the plant extract to inhibit anticholinesterase enzyme, which makes it a potential drug in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and Myasthenia gravis. In the current review article, we have presented the extraction, standardization, phytochemical analysis, optimization techniques, pharmacological activities of Tabernaemontana divaricata plant. 

Keywords: Tabernaemontana divaricate; Extraction; Phytochemical; Standardization of Extract; Pharmacological Activities


  1. Van Beek T., et al. “Tabernaemontana (Apocynaceae): A review of its taxonomy, phytochemistry, ethnobotany and pharmacology”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 10 (1984): 1-156.
  2. Silveira D., et al. “Tabernaemontana Species: Promising Sources of New Useful Drugs”. Studies in Natural Product Chemistry 54 (2017): 227-289.
  3. Clarissa MN., et al. “Major Bioactive Alkaloids and Biological Activities of Tabernaemontana Species (Apocynaceae)”. Plants 10 (2021): 313.
  4. Kirthikar KR and Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants (1998): 577-578.
  5. Rapini A. “Taxonomy “under construction”: Advances in the systematics of Apocynaceae, with emphasis on the Brazilian Asclepiadoideae”. Rodriguesia 63 (2012): 075-088.
  6. Athipornchai A. “A Review on Tabernaemontana: Multipotential Medicinal Plant”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 11 (2018): 45-53.
  7. Warrier PK., et al. Indian Medicinal Plants. Madras: Orient Longman Ltd (1996): 232.
  8. Silveira D., et al. “Tabernaemontana Species: Promising Sources of New Useful Drugs”. Studies in Natural Product Chemistry Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands 54 (2017): 227-289.
  9. Marinho FF., et al. “Brazilian Tabernaemontana genus: Indole alkaloids and phytochemical activities”. Fitoterapia 114 (2016): 127-137.
  10. Zhu JP., et al. “Chemotaxonomic study of the genus Tabernaemontana (Apocynaceae) based on their indole alkaloid content”. Plant Systems and Evolution 172 (1990): 13-34.
  11. Pratchayasakul W., et al. “Ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology of Tabernaemontana divaricata”. Indian Journal of Medical Research 127 (2008): 317-335.
  12. Rothe SP., et al. “Medicinal significance of ornamental plants in human welfare”. Journal of Experimental Sciences3 (2001): 30-32.
  13. Henriques AT., et al. “Ervatamia coronaria: Chemical constituents and some pharmacological activities”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 50 (1996): 19-25.
  14. Jain S., et al. “Antifertility effect of chronically administered Tabernaemontana divaricata leaf extract on male rats”. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicines 5 (2012): 547-551.
  15. Ingkaninan K., et al. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology6 (2006): 847-852.
  16. Van Beek TA., et al. “Tabernaemontana (Apocynaceae): A review of its taxonomy, phytochemistry, ethnobotany and pharmacology”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 10.1 (1984) 1-156.
  17. Warrier PK., et al. Indian Medicinal Plants Madras: Orient Longman Ltd. (1996): 232.
  18. Abah SE and Egwari LO. “Methods of extraction and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of plant extracts”. AJBAS 5 (2011) 205-209.
  19. Evans, W.C. “Trease and Evans, Pharmacognosy”. Toronto: Harcourt Pub Ltd., 16th edition, (2002).
  20. Rathaur B., et al. “Phytochemical analysis of Tabernaemontana divaricata”. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2 (2020) 1283-1291.
  21. Kokate CK., et al. “Pharmacognosy”. Nirali Prakashan, 39th Edition, (2007).
  22. Singleton VL and Rossi JA. “Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic phosphotungstic acid reagents”. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 16 (1965): 144-158.
  23. Bao J., et al. “Anthocyanins, flavonol and free radical scavenging activity of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) extracts and their color properties and stability”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (2005): 2327-2332.
  24. Lowry OH., et al. “Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent”. Biological Chemistry 193 (1951): 265-275.
  25. Thombre R., et al. “Evaluation of phytoconstituents, antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of vitex negundo And Tabernaemontana divaricata”. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 1 (2013): 389-396.
  26. Sharker SM., et al. “Phytochemical and antinociceptive study of leaves of Tabernaemontana divaricata”. Journal of Medicinal Plants2 (2011): 245-247.
  27. Sparkman DO., et al. “Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry: A Practical Guide”. 2nd edition, (2011).
  28. Paranthaman R., et al. “GC-MS Analysis of phytochemicals and simultaneous determination of flavonoids in Amaranthus caudatus (Sirukeerai) by RP-HPLC”. Journal of Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques 5 (2012): 1-4.
  29. Kumaravel S., et al. “GC-MS Study on Microbial degradation of Lindane”. International Journal of Applied Chemistry 63 (2010): 363-366.
  30. Arirudran B., et al. “GC/MS determination of bioactive components from Cuminum cyminum L”. 7 (2018): 1671-1683.
  31. Anbukkarasi M., et al. “Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry Analysis and In vitro Antioxidant Activity of the Ethanolic Extract of the Leaves of Tabernaemontana divaricate”. Pharmacognosy Journal5 (2016): 451-458.
  32. Fowden L. “Plant amino acid research in retrospect: From Chibnall to Singh”. Amino Acids 20 (2001): 217-224.
  33. Harborne JB. “Phytochemical Methods- A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plants Analysis”. Chapman and Hall, U.K, 5th edition, (1998).
  34. Ingkaninan K., et al. “Vobasinyl-iboga bisindole alkaloids, potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Tabernaemontana divaricata root”. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology6 (2006): 847-852.
  35. Chattipakorn S., et al. “Tabernaemontana divaricata extract inhibits neuronal acetylcholinesterase activity in rats”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology1 (2007): 61-68.
  36. Nakdook W., et al. “The effects of Tabernaemontana divaricata root extract on amyloid β-peptide25-35 peptides induced cognitive deficits in mice”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology1 (2010): 122-126.
  37. Chaiyana W., et al. “Characterization and in vitro permeation study of microemulsions and liquid crystalline systems containing the anticholinesterase alkaloidal extract from Tabernaemontana divaricate”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics1-2 (2013): 201-210.
  38. Chaiyana W., et al. “3′-R/Shydroxyvoacamine, a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor from Tabernaemontana divaricate”. Phytomedicine 20 (2013): 543-548.
  39. Thind TS., et al. “Studies on cytotoxic, hydroxyl radical scavenging and topoisomerase inhibitory activities of extracts of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R.Br. ex roem. and schult”. Food Chemistry and Toxicology8 (2008): 2922-2927.
  40. Zhang HR., et al. “Conophylline promotes the proliferation of immortalized mesenchymal stem cells derived from fetal porcine pancreas”. Journal of Integrative Agriculture4 (2013) 678-686.
  41. Bao MF., et al. “Cytotoxic indole alkaloids from Tabernaemontana divaricate”. Journal of Natural Products 76 (2013): 1406-1412.
  42. Rumzhum NN., et al. “Antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of methanol extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata leaves”. International Current Pharmaceutical Journal2 (2012): 27-31.
  43. Zulkefli HN., et al. “Antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Tinospora cripa and Tabernaemontana corymbosa”. Sains Malaysia4 (2013): 697-706.
  44. Jain S., et al. “Antifertility effect of chronically administered Tabernaemontana divaricata leaf extract on male rats”. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine5 (2012): 547-551.
  45. Mukhram MA., et al. “Anti-fertility effect of flower extracts of Tabernaemontana divaricata in rats”. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines1 (2012): 58-62.
  46. Jain S., et al. “In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata leaf extract on male albino mice”. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines5 (2013): 472-476.
  47. Singh B., et al. “Antimicrobial, Antineoplastic and Cytotoxic Activities of Indole Alkaloids from Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br”. Current Pharmaceutical Analysis 7 (2011): 125-132.
  48. Khan MSA. “Gastroprotective Effect of Tabernaemontana divaricata (Linn.) R.Br. Flower Methanolic Extract in Wistar Rats”. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research3 (2011): 88-98.
  49. Kam TS., et al. “Conodiparines A-D, new bisindole from Tabernaemontana. Reversal of vincristine-resistance with cultured cells”. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters 8 (1998): 1693-1696.
  50. Kanthlal SK., et al. “Amelioration of oxidative stress by Tabernaemontana divaricata on alloxan-induced diabetic rats”. Annals of Science Life4 (2014): 222-228.
  51. Kojima I and Umezawa K. “Conophylline: A novel differentiation inducer for pancreatic β cells”. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 5-6 (2006): 923-930.
  52. Devaraj P., et al. “Synthesis and characterisation of silver nanoparticles using Tabernaemontana divaricata and its cytotoxic activity against MCF7 cell line”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 8 (2014): 86-90.
  53. Anbukkarasi M., et al. “Comparison of the efficacy of a Tabernaemontana divaricata extract and of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles in preventing cataract formation in an in-vivo system of selenite-induced cataractogenesis”. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology (2020).


Citation: Sadhana Raut., et al. “Pharmacognostic and Pharmacological Aspects on Tabernaemontana divaricata Plant". Acta Scientific Pharmacology 3.10 (2022): 22-34.


Copyright: © 2022 Sadhana Raut., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate36%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US