Acta Scientific Neurology (ASNE) (ISSN: 2582-1121)

Perspective Volume 6 Issue 1

Congenital Hydrocephalus in Identical Twins: Case Report

Kenneth Blum1-6,13, Abdalla Bowirrat1, Igor Elman7, David Baron2, Panayotis K Thanos8,9, Mark S Gold10, Catherine Dennen11, Nicole Jafari12,13, Drew Edwards14, Jag Khalsa15,16, Eric R Braverman3, Rajendra D Badgaiyan17

1Department of Molecular Biology and Adelson School of Medicine, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel
2Center for Sports, Exercise, Global Mental Health, Western University Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA
3The Kenneth Blum Behavioral and Neurogenetic Institute, LLC, Austin, TX, USA
4Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary
5Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont School of Medicine, Burlington, VY, USA
6Department of Psychiatry, Wright University, Boonshoff School of Medicine, Dayton, OH, USA
7Cambridge Health Alliance, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA
8Behavioral Neuropharmacology and Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Clinical Research Institute on Addictions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
9Department of Psychology, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
10Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA
11Department of Family Medicine, Jefferson Health Northeast, Philadelphia, PA, USA
12Department of Human Development, California State University at long Beach, Long Beach, CA, USA
13Division of Personalized Medicine, Cross-Cultural Research and Educational Institute, San Clemente, CA, USA
14The NeuroGenesis Project, Jacksonville, Florida
15Division of Therapeutics and Medical Consequences, Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse and Infections Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Special Volunteer, MD, USA
16Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, NWDC USA
17Department of Psychiatry, South Texas Veteran Health Care System, Audie L. Murphy Memorial VA Hospital, Long School of Medicine, University of Texas Medical Center, San Antonio, TX, USA

*Corresponding Author: Kenneth Blum, Department of Molecular Biology and Adelson School of Medicine, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.

Received: December 02, 2022; Published: December 27, 2022


This phrase” that’s for the birds” is of American origin and, while still in use there, has never been commonly used elsewhere. It is US Army slang and originated towards the end of WWII. First use was from The Lowell Sun, October 1944. The phrase has a number of meanings as described in the 1944 edition of the American Speech. In our use of this phrase, it suggests that people do not want to experience addiction at all because it is contemptible. We also use it to designate that preaddiction based on both DNA antecedents and epigenetic insults due to negativity in the surrounds is due in-part to reward deficiency as in “Reward Deficiency Syndrome” first coined by Blum’s group in 1995, thus aka BRDS.


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Citation: Kenneth Blum., et al. “OPIOID ADDICTION: That’s “for the BRDS". Acta Scientific Neurology 6.1 (2023): 86-92.


Copyright: © 2023 Kenneth Blum., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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