Acta Scientific Neurology (ASNE) (ISSN: 2582-1121)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 6

The Biofeedback Therapy on Academic Stress among Graduate Students

K Jayasankara Reddy*

Department of Psychology, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore, India

*Corresponding Author: K Jayasankara Reddy, Department of Psychology, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore, India.

Received: April 10, 2021; Published: May 27, 2021


  The study aimed at understanding the effects of Biofeedback therapy, as an intervention strategy, on academic stress of undergraduate college students in Bangalore, India. Bangalore has been dealing with an increase in student suicide rates and academic stress has been touted to be one of the reasons for this increase. Moreover, academic stress is also linked with increased anxiety and depressive symptoms. Biofeedback therapy is a relatively new method of treatment, which utilizes modern technology to address various issues such as stress, by helping the individual self-regulate and monitor their own bodily processes thereby, reducing stress. Students with higher levels of academic stress were screened using the Academic stress scale [1]. Thirty-one undergraduate students with high levels of academic stress participated in the study. Participants were trained for ten sessions of Biofeedback intervention by monitoring heart rate variability and relaxation exercises. Perceived academic stress was measured in the pre and post test setting by using the Perceived stress scale [2]. Data collected was analyzed using t-test and significant results were found.

Keywords: Academic Stress; Biofeedback Therapy; HRV Training


  1. Rajendran R and Kaliappan K V. “A factorial study of sources of student academic stress”. Journal of Psychological Researches2 (1991): 53-57.
  2. Cohen S., et al. “A global measure of perceived stress”. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 24 (1983): 385-396.
  3. Lee M and Larson R. “The Korean ‘examination hell’: Long hours of studying, distress, and depression”. Journal of Youth and Adolescence2 (2000): 249-271.
  4. Aldwin C and Greenberger E. “Cultural differences in the predictors of depression”. American Journal of Community Psychology 15 (1987): 789-813.
  5. Fairbrother K and Warn J. “Workplace dimensions, stress and job satisfaction”. Journal of Managerial Psychology1 (2003): 8-21.
  6. Nonis S., et al. “Influence of perceived control of time on college students’ stress and stress-related outcomes”. Research in Higher Education 39 (1998): 587-605.
  7. Cheng D., et al. “Cultural differences in psychological distress between Asian and Caucasian American college students”. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development3 (1993): 182-190.
  8. Ang R P and Huan V S. “Relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation: Testing for depression as a mediator using multiple regression”. Child Psychiatry and Human Development2 (2006): 133-143.
  9. Awino J O and Agolla J E. “A quest for sustainable quality assurance measurement for universities: case of study of the University of Botswana”. Educational Research and Review 6 (2008): 213-218.
  10. Teigen K H. “Yerkes-Dodson: A law for all seasons”. Theory and Psychology4 (1994): 525-547.
  11. Chajut E and Algom D. “Selective attention improves under stress: implications for theories of social cognition”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology2 (2003): 231.
  12. Braunstein-bercovitz H. “Does stress enhance or impair selective attention? The effects of stress and perceptual load on negative priming”. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping4 (2003): 345-357.
  13. Skosnik P D., et al. “Modulation of attentional inhibition by norepinephrine and cortisol after psychological stress”. International Journal of Psychophysiology1 (2000): 59-68.
  14. Lupien S J., et al. “Working memory is more sensitive than declarative memory to the acute effects of corticosteroids: A dose–response study in humans”. Behavioral Neuroscience3 (1999): 420.
  15. Elzinga B M and Roelofs K. "Cortisol-induced impairments of working memory require acute sympathetic activation”. Behavioral Neuroscience1 (2005): 98.
  16. Abercrombie H C., et al. “Cortisol variation in humans affects memory for emotionally laden and neutral information”. Behavioral Neuroscience3 (2003): 505.
  17. McEwen B S. “The neurobiology of stress: from serendipity to clinical relevance. Brain research, 886.1 (2000): 172-189.
  18. Deak T., et al. “Evidence that brief stress may induce the acute phase response in rats”. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology6 (1997): R1998-R2004.
  19. Kadapatti MG and Vijayalaxmi AHM. “Stressors of Academic Stress- A Study on Pre-University Students”. Indian Journal of Scientific Research1 (2012): 171-175.
  20. Saha D. “Every hour, one student commits suicide in India”. Hindustan Times (2017).
  21. Patel V., et al. “Suicide mortality in India: a nationally representative survey”. The Lancet9834 (2012): 2343-2351.
  22. Nandamuri P and Gowthami Ch. “Sources of Academic Stress- A Study on Management Students”. Journal of Management and Science 2 (2011): 31-42.
  23. Martin G., et al. “Perceived academic performance, self-esteem and locus of control as indicators of need for assessment of adolescent suicide risk: implications for teachers”. Journal of Adolescence 1 (2005): 75-87.
  24. Porges SW. “Cardiac vagal tone: a physiological index of stress”. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews2 (1995): 225-233.
  25. Fisher S. “Stress in academic life: The mental assembly line”. Open University Press (1994).
  26. Sapp M. “Three Treatments for Reducing the Worry and Emotionality Components of Test Anxiety with Undergraduate and Graduate College Students: Cognitive-Behavioral Hypnosis, Relaxation Therapy, and Supportive Counseling”. Journal of College Student Development1 (1996): 79-87.
  27. Granath J., et al. “Stress management: a randomized study of cognitive behavioural therapy and yoga”. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy1 (2006): 3-10.
  28. Frank D L., et al. “Biofeedback in medicine: who, when, why and how?”. Mental Health in Family Medicine2 (2010): 85.
  29. Prinsloo G E., et al. “The effect of a single session of short duration heart rate variability biofeedback on EEG: a pilot study”. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback1 (2013): 45-56.
  30. Lehrer P and Eddie D. “Dynamic Processes in Regulation and Some Smplications for Biofeedback and Biobehavioral Interventions”. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback2 (2013): 143-155.
  31. Steffen PR., et al. “Treating Chronic Stress to Address the Growing Problem of Depression and Anxiety: Biofeedback and Mindfulness as Simple, Effective Preventive Measures”. Behavioural and Brain Sciences1 (2017): 64-70.
  32. Ratanasiripong P., et al. “Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing”. Nursing Research and Practice 160746 (2014).
  33. Zwan J E., et al. “Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial”. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback4 (2015): 257-268.
  34. Van Daele T., et al. “Stress reduction through psychoeducation: a meta-analytic review”. Health Education and Behavior4 (2012): 474-485.
  35. Wilbum V R and Smith D E. “Stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents”. Adolescence157 (2005): 33-45.


Citation: K Jayasankara Reddy., et al. “The Biofeedback Therapy on Academic Stress among Graduate Students”. Acta Scientific Neurology 4.6 (2021): 128-135.


Copyright: © 2021 K Jayasankara Reddy., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US