Acta Scientific Orthopaedics (ISSN: 2581-8635)

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 9

Assessing Ground Reaction Forces and Degenerative Changes of Sound Limb in Unilateral Lower Extremity Amputees: A Systematic Review

Kira N Donnelly1*, Colin Davis2, Nicole Liotta2, Angela Perkins2, Vibhor Agrawal2, Jason Highsmith3-5 and Scott Love2

1Department of Master of Prosthetics-Orthotics Program, UT Southwestern Medical Center, USA

2University of St. Augustine, Doctor of Physical Therapy Program, St. Augustine, Florida, USA

3University of South Florida, Morsani College of Medicine, School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Sciences. Tampa, Florida, USA

4U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Services (10P4R), Orthotic and Prosthetic Clinical Services, Tampa, Florida, USA

5U.S. Army Reserves, 319th Minimal Care Detachment, SP Corps, Pinellas Park, Florida, USA

*Corresponding Author: Kira N Donnelly, Department of Master of Prosthetics-Orthotics Program, UT Southwestern Medical Center, USA.

Received: June 27, 2022; Published: August 04, 2022


Background: There is a rising number of individuals undergoing lower extremity amputation (LEA) and is associated with increased risk of comorbidities. Osteoarthritis (OA) and Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD) are conditions that cause reduction in an individual’s function, independence, and quality of life.

Research Design: A search of multiple databases using terms associated with possible functional declines as evidenced by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), followed by assessment of evidence using the PEDro scoring method will be conducted. Multiple reviewers will screen, sort, rate and extract data from articles.

Methods: A computer-aided literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar was performed to identify studies published beginning in 2009 that investigated factors that contribute to degenerative changes in the contralateral limb of a unilateral LEA. 

Results: A total of 21 studies were selected from a total of 56 collected studies. Predictors of osteoarthritis (OA) following lower limb amputation include age, etiology, level of amputation, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), comorbidity, pain, phantom pain, streng and OA. The impact of ground reaction forces on the sound limb varies between studies. In general, poor gait mechanics and resulting compensatory mechanisms are significant contributors to the occurrence of OA. 

Conclusion: There is a dearth of information relating to the prevention of degenerative changes in those with LEA and protocols for pain management and training pre- and post-joint replacement. The incidence of OA in the contralateral limb is still not fully understood. Further investigation into the biomechanics of compensatory mechanisms is necessary to fully understand the functional impact on the population. It is imperative to develop thorough physical therapy protocols for individuals in early onset of OA and those undergoing joint replacement due to degeneration.


Keywords: Lower Extremity Amputation; Unilateral; Osteoarthritis; Degenerative Joint Disease; Ground Reaction Forces; Mobility; Prognosis; Total Arthroplasty; Prosthesis 


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Citation: Kira N Donnelly., et al. “Assessing Ground Reaction Forces and Degenerative Changes of Sound Limb in Unilateral Lower Extremity Amputees: A Systematic Review". Acta Scientific Orthopaedics 5.9 (2022): 03-19.


Copyright: © 2022 Kira N Donnelly., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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