Acta Scientific Gastrointestinal Disorders (ISSN: 2582-1091)

Mini ReviewVolume 4 Issue 8

Importance of Nutritional Evaluation in Transplant Patients Awaiting Lung Transplantation

Sevan Çetin Özbek1* and Fatma Perim Türker2

1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences Yüksek Ihtisas University, Ankara, Turkey
2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey

*Corresponding Author: Sevan Çetin Özbek, Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences Yüksek Ihtisas University, Ankara, Turkey.

Received: June 30, 2021; Published: July 20, 2021

Citation: Sevan Çetin Özbek and Fatma Perim Türker. “Importance of Nutritional Evaluation in Transplant Patients Awaiting Lung Transplantation". Acta Scientific Gastrointestinal Disorders 4.8 (2021): 26-30.


Nutritional status of lung transplant candidates is important both before and after transplant. Early assessment of nutritional status is necessary to identify individuals with malnutrition/at risk of malnutrition and to prevent complications, manage the catabolic process and provide optimal nutrition. In this article, it is aimed to draw attention to the importance of nutritional evaluation before lung transplantation. By reason of today, there is still a need to increase malnutrition awareness, prevent malnutrition and spread interdisciplinary work all over the world. Malnutrition and obesity, considered, a malnutrition, have negative consequences for the patient, health professionals and the economy. These are encountered with deterioration of organ systems, increase in hospital stay-cost-re-admission, in morbidity and mortality. For this reason, determining the nutritional problems of the patients from the first admission to the hospital is the key point in predicting the problem from the beginning and producing a solution accordingly. In particular, the nutritional status of lung transplant candidates affects short and long-term factors such as post-transplant complications, length of hospital stay and mortality, post-discharge care and re-admission to the hospital.

Keywords: Lung Transplantation; Nutritional Status; Evaluation of Nutritional Status


  1. Haddad Moshe and Sharma Sandeep. “Physiology”. Lung (2021).
  2. Kılıç Cenk. “Akciğerlerin Anatomisi”. Journal of Clinical and Analytical Medicine (2011):1-3.
  3. Forum of International Respiratory Societies. “The Global Impact of Respiratory Disease-Second Edition” (2021).
  4. Girgis Reda E and Khaghani Asghar. “A global perspective of lung transplantation: Part 1 – Recipient selection and choice of procedure”. Global Cardiology Science and Practice (2016): 5.
  5. Jomphe Valerie., et al. “Nutritional Requirements of Lung Transplant Recipients: Challenges and Considerations”. Nutrients 10 (2018): 790.
  6. Chambers Daniel C., et al. “The International Thoracic Organ Transplant Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: Thirty-sixth adult lung and heart–lung transplantation Report-2019; Focus theme: Donor and recipient size match”. The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 38 (2019): 1042–1055.
  7. European Kidney Health Alliance. “Organ Donation and Transplantation in the EU” (2021).
  8. Turkish Thoracic Society. “Lung Transplantation in Our Country” (2021).
  9. American Transplant Foundation. “The Transplant Team” (2021).
  10. Tynan Cameo and Hasse Jeanette M. “Current nutrition practices in adult lung transplantation”. Nutrition in Clinical Practice 19 (2004): 587-596.
  11. WHO Tecnical Report Series. “Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases” (2021).
  12. Skipper Annalynn. “Dietititan’s Handbook of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition”. Trans. Besler, Tanju H, İnanç, Neriman. İstanbul: Nobel Tıp Kitapevi (2014).
  13. Weimann Arved., et al. “ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition: Surgery including organ transplantation”. Clinical Nutrition 25 (2006): 224–244.
  14. Shah Pali and Orens Jonathan B. “Impact of nutritional state on lung transplant outcomes: The weight of the evidence”. The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 32 (2013): 755-756.
  15. Kim Chi Y., et al. “Usefulness of the preoperative prognostic nutritional index score as a predictor of the outcomes of lung transplantation: A single-institution experience”. Clinical Nutrition 38 (2019): 2423-2429.
  16. Weil David., et al. “A consensus document for the selection of lung transplant candidates: 2014-An update from the Pulmonary Transplantation Council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation”. The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 34 (2015): 1-15.
  17. Barker Lisa A., et al. “Hospital Malnutrition: Prevalence, identification and impact on patients and the healthcare system”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 8 (2011): 514-527.
  18. Chohan Karan., et al. “Evaluation of malnutrition risk in lung transplant candidates using the nutritional risk index”. Transplantation Direct 6 (2020): e574.
  19. Cederholm Tommy., et al. “ESPEN guidelines on definitions and terminology of clinical nutrition”. Clinical Nutrition 36 (2017): 49-64.
  20. White Jane V., et al. “Consensus statement: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: characteristics recommended for the identification and documentation of adult malnutrition (undernutrition)”. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 36 (2012): 275-283.
  21. Saunders John., et al. “Malnutrition and undernutrition”. Medicine 39 (2011): 45-50.
  22. Reber Emilie., et al. “Nutritional risk screening and assessment”. Journal of Clinical Medicine 8 (2019): 1065.
  23. Weill David. “Lung transplantation: indications and contraindications”. Journal of Thoracic Disease 10 (2018): 4574-4587.
  24. Sanders Karin J., et al. “Cachexia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: new insights and therapeutic perspective”. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle 7 (2016): 5-22.
  25. Boura Sophie., et al. “Optimization of nutritional management of patients awaiting lung transplant at the Strasbourg University Hospitals”. Clinical Nutrition Experimental 27 (2019): 9-20.
  26. Souza Sabrina MP de., et al. “Nutritional profile of lung transplant candidates”. Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia 35 (2009): 242-247.
  27. Mueller Charles., et al. “A.S.P.E.N. clinical guidelines: Nutrition screening, assessment, and intervention in adults”. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 35 (2011): 16-24.
  28. Schwebel David C., et al. “ Prevalence and consequences of nutritional depletion in lung transplant candidates”. European Respiratory Journal 16 (2000): 1050-1055.
  29. González-Castro Alejandro., et al. “Influence of Nutritional Status in Lung Transplant Recipients”. Transplantation Proceedings 38 (2006): 2539-2540.
  30. DiCecco Sara R and Francisco-Ziller Nickie. “Obesity and Organ Transplantation: Successes, failures, and opportunities”. Nutrition in Clinical Practice 29 (2014): 171-191.
  31. Barazzoni Rocco and Cappellari Gianluca G. “Double burden of malnutrition in persons with obesity”. Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 21 (2020): 307-313.
  32. Malhotra Atul and Hillman David. “Obesity and the lung: 3. Obesity, respiration and intensive care”. Thorax 63 (2008): 925-931.
  33. Schetz Miet., et al. “Obesity in the critically ill: a narrative review”. Intensive Care Medicine 45 (2019): 757-769.
  34. Salome Cheryl M., et al. “Physiology of obesity and effects on lung function”. Journal of Applied Physiology 108 (2010): 206-211.
  35. American Thoracic Society. “International guidelines for the selection of lung transplant candidates” (2021).
  36. Madill Janet., et al. “Nutritional Assessment of the Lung transplant patient: Body mass index as a predictor of 90–day mortality following transplantation”. The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 20 (2001): 288-296.
  37. Ruttens David., et al. “Body mass ındex in lung transplant candidates: a contra-indication to transplant or not? Transplantation Proceedings 46 (2014): 1506-1510.

Copyright: © Sevan Çetin Özbek and Fatma Perim Türker. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US