Acta Scientific Dental Sciences (ASDS)(ISSN: 2581-4893)

Research Article Volume 7 Issue 12

Halitosis- Literature Review

Anil Melath, Arjun MR*, Prakash N, Sindhuja S, Advaitha S and Angela Grace Praveen

Department of Periodontics, Mahe Institute of Dental Sciences, Kerala, India

*Corresponding Author: Sarra Nasri, Fixed Prosthodontics Department, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Monastir, Avicenna Avenue, Monastir, Tunisia.

Received: October 25, 2023; Published: November 24, 2023


Breath malodour is a condition that has health and social implications. The origin of breath malodour problems is related to tooth systemic and oral conditions. The advice of dental professionals for the treatment of this condition occurs with regularity since 90% of breath odour problems emanate from the oral cavity. This article reveals a review of aetiology of breath odour and its prevalence diagnosis and treatment strategies for oral malodour.

Keywords:Breath Malodour; Oral Malodour; Halitosis; Oral Halitosis; High Volatile Compounds; Halimeter; Organoleptic; Pseudo Halitosis; Halitophobia


  1. Apatzidou AD., et al. “Association between oral malodour and periodontal disease-related parameters in the general population”. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 71 (2013): 189-195.
  2. Loesche WJ and Kazor C. “Microbiology and treatment of halitosis”. Periodontology 28 (2000): 256-279.
  3. Messadi DV and Younai FS. “Halitosis”. Dermatologic Clinics 1 (2003): 147-155.
  4. Lee PP., et al. “The aetiology and treatment of oral halitosis: an update”. Hong Kong Medical Journal 6 (2004): 414-418.
  5. Mohamed Fadel. “Oral malodor: definition, causes, complications, and treatment”. JMJ5 (2006): 23-27.
  6. Haghgoo R and Abbasi F. “Evaluation of the use of a peppermint mouth rinse for halitosis by girls studying in Tehran high schools”. Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry 3 (2013): 29-35.
  7. Quirynen M., et al. “A salivary incubation test for evaluation of oral malodour: a pilot study”. Journal of Periodontology 74 (2003): 937-944.
  8. Bollen CM and Beikler T. “Halitosis: The multidisciplinary approach”. International Journal of Oral Science 4 (2012): 55‑63.
  9. Liu XN., et al. “Oral malodor-related parameters in the Chinese general population”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 33 (2006): 31-36.
  10. Nir Sterer and Mel Rosenberg. “Breath Odors, Prevalence, Gender, and Age, Breath Odors” (2020): 71-75.
  11. Cortelli JR., et al. “Halitosis: a review of associated factors and therapeutic approach”. Brazilian Oral Research 1 (2008): 44-54.
  12. Adegbiji AW., et al. “Journal of West African College of Surgeons 4 (2017): 34‐51.
  13. Paradowska A., et al. “Self-perception of halitosis among students of Wroclaw Medical University”. Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine 16 (2007): 543-548.
  14. Miyazaki H., et al. “Correlation between volatile sulphur compounds and certain oral health measurements in the general population”. Journal of Periodontology 66 (1995): 679-684.
  15. Setia S., et al. “Correlation of oral hygiene practices, smoking and oral health conditions with self-perceived halitosis amongst undergraduate dental students”. Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine (2014): 5.
  16. Fedorowicz Z., et al. “Mouthrinses for the treatment of halitosis”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews4 (2008): CD006701.
  17. Motta LJ., et al. “Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children”. Clinics (Sao Paulo)6 (2011): 939-942.
  18. Yaegaki K and Coil JM. “Examination, classification, and treatment of halitosis; clinical perspectives”. Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 66 (2000): 257-261.
  19. Nakano Y., et al. “Correlation between oral malodor and periodontal bacteria”. Microbes and Infection/Institut Pasteur 4 (2002): 679-683.
  20. Persson S., et al. “The formation of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan by oral bacteria”. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 5 (1990): 195-201.
  21. Van den Velde S., et al. “Halitosis associated volatiles in breath of healthy subjects”. Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences 853 (2007): 54-61.
  22. Tangerman A and Winkel EG. “Intra- and extra-oral halitosis: finding of a new form of extra-oral blood-borne halitosis caused by dimethyl sulphide”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 34 (2005): 748-755.
  23. Han DG., et al. “Association between viral hepatitis B infection and halitosis”. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 72 (2014): 274-282.
  24. Aylikci BU and Colak H. “Halitosis: from diagnosis to management”. Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine 4 (2013): 14-21.
  25. Scully C and Greenman J. “Halitology (breath odour: Aetiopathogenesis and management)”. Oral Diseases 4 (2012): 333-345.
  26. Khozeimeh F., et al. “Determination of salivary urea and uric acid of patients with halitosis”. Dental Research Journal (Isfahan) 4 (2017): 241-245.
  27. Zehentbauer G., et al. “Use of humidified air in optimizing APCI-MS response in breath analysis”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48 (2000): 5389-5395.
  28. Porter SR. “Diet and halitosis”. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 14 (2011): 463-468.
  29. Awano S., et al. “The relationship between the presence of periodontopathogenic bacteria in saliva and halitosis”. International Dental Journal 52 (2002): 212-216.
  30. Morita M and Wang H-L. “Association between oral malodor and adult periodontitis: A review”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 28 (2001): 813-819.
  31. Tyrrell KL., et al. “Anaerobic bacteria cultured from the tongue dorsum of subjects with oral malodor”. Anaerobe 9 (2003): 243-246.
  32. Allaker RP., et al. “Topographic distribution of bacteria associated with oral malodour on the tongue”. Archives of Oral Biology 53 (2008): 8-12.
  33. Monea A., et al. “Tongue microflora and periodontal disease”. European Scientific Journal 10 (2014): 12-17.
  34. Yoneda M., et al. “Relationship between the b-galactosidase activity in saliva and parameters associated with oral malodor”. Journal of Breath Research 1 (2010): 017108.
  35. Hughes FJ and McNab R. “Oral Malodour-a review”. Archives of Oral Biology 53 (2008): 1-7.
  36. Van der Broek A., et al. “A review of the current literature on aetiology and measurements methods of halitosis”. Journal of Dentistry 35 (2007): 627-726.
  37. Kapoor U., et al. “Halitosis: current concepts on etiology, diagnosis and management”. European Journal of Dentistry 10 (2016): 292-300.
  38. Akcan A., et al. “Halitozis”. Yeni Tıp Dergisi 25 (2008): 134-137.
  39. Murata T., et al. “Classification and examination of halitosis”. International Dental Journal 3 (2002): 181-186.
  40. Rosenberg M and McCulloch CA. “Measurement of oral malodor: Current methods and future prospects”. Journal of Periodontology 9 (1992): 776-782.
  41. Hunter CM., et al. “Breath odor evaluation by detection of volatile sulfur compounds - correlation with organoleptic odor ratings”. Oral Diseases 1-1 (2005): 48-50.
  42. Kozlovsky A., et al. “Efficacy of a 2-phase oil: Water mouthrinse in controlling oral malodor, gingivitis, and plaque”. Journal of Periodontology6 (1996): 577-582.
  43. Gülşen M. “Ağız kokusu (Halitozis)”. Güncel Gastroenterology3 (2012): 199-210.
  44. Amano A., et al. “Monitoring ammonia to assess halitosis”. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 6 (2002): 692-696.
  45. Kamaraj RD and Bhushan KS KLV. “An evaluation of microbial profile in halitosis with tongue coating using PCR (polymerase chain reaction)- A clinical and microbiological study”. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 1 (2014): 263-267.
  46. Armstrong B., et al. “Halitosis: a review of current literature”. Journal of Dental Hygiene 84 (2010): 65-75.
  47. Seemann R., et al. “Halitosis management by the general dental practitioner--results of an international consensus workshop”. Journal of Breath Research 1 (2014): 017101.
  48. Dudzik A and Chomyszyn-Gajewska M. “Pseudohalitoza i halitofobia [Pseudohalitosis and halitophobia]”. Przeglad Lekarski 5 (2014): 274‐276.
  49. Outhouse TL., et al. “A Cochrane systematic review finds tongue scrapers have short term efficacy in controlling halitosis”. General Dentistry 54 (2006): 352-359.
  50. Hur MH. “Reduction of mouth rinse and volatile sulfur compound in intensive care patients using an essential oil mouthwash”. Phytotherapy Research 21 (2007): 641-643.
  51. Nachnani S. “The effects of oral rinses on halitosis”. Journal of the California Dental Association 25 (1977): 145-150.
  52. Federowicz Z., et al. “Mouthrinses for the treatment of halitosis”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4 (2008): 6701-6712.
  53. Hu D., et al. “Clinical effectiveness of a triclosan/copolymer/sodium-fluoride dentrifice in controlling oral malodour: a three-week clinical trial”. Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry 24 (2003): 34-41.
  54. Suzuki N., et al. “Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 - containing tablets for the treatment of oral malodour: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial”. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, and Oral Radiology 117 (2014): 462-470.
  55. Benic GZ., et al. “Oral probiotics reduce halitosis in patients wearing orthodontic braces: a randomized triple-blind placebo-controlled trial”. Journal of Breath Research 13 (2019): 036010.
  56. Laleman I., et al. “Probiotics reduce mutans streptococci counts in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Clinical Oral Investigations 18 (2014): 1539-1552.


Citation: Arjun MR., et al. “Halitosis- Literature Review".Acta Scientific Dental Sciences 7.12 (2023): 35-41.


Copyright: © 2023 Arjun MR., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.278

Indexed In

News and Events

Contact US