Behavioral Guidance Approaches to Provide Dental Care for Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Review of the Literature
Hanan A Mohamed1* and Eyman M Abdalla2
1Pediatric Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
2Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, the Netherlands
*Corresponding Author: Hanan A Mohamed, Pediatric Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.
Received: September 12, 2022; Published: September 23, 2022
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a condition with a specific neuropsychological and sensory profile that complicates dental procedures. Consequently, most of these patients are treated under general anesthesia or unnecessary sedation. Contemporary and/or alternative educational and behavioral approaches may facilitate successful dental care for these patients. A literature review was conducted for relevant information on basic and alternative behavioral approaches for dental care of children with ASD. Basic educational approaches used for neurotypical children can be applied in the dental setting for ASD children. Examples include communication guidance, non-verbal communication, Tell-Show-Do (TSD), voice control, positive reinforcement and descriptive praise, distraction, contingent and non-contingent escape, parental presence/absence, modeling, and desensitization. Additionally, customized behavior guidance plans can be adapted for children with ASD including sensory adapted dental environment (SADE), animal assisted intervention (AAI), picture exchange communication systems (PECS), social stories, or video modeling in advance of the appointment, breaking down dental treatment into sequential components, and modification of the environment to minimize sensory triggers. A review of the published articles on ASD in dentistry reveals that upon understanding of children with ASD as individuals and applying contemporary principles of education and behavioral approaches; most of these patients can be provided with optimal oral health care.
Keywords: Autism; Dental Care; Behavioral Management; Dental Strategies; Dental Techniques; Dental Management
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