Identification and Frequency of Causative Organism in Oral Candidiasis in Early Childhood in Bangladesh
Ayrin Parvin1, Dipa Roy2, Nur-E-Saud3, Abdul Awal4, Md Salah Uddin5 and Ariful Haque2*
1Dental Pharmacology, Dental Unit, Rajshahi Medical College, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
2Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
3Science of Dental Material and Engineering, Dental Unit, Rajshahi Medical College, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
4Department of Public Health, Varendra University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
5Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
*Corresponding Author: Ariful Haque, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
Received: April 19, 2022; Published:
Introduction: Opportunistic infections may be caused by the part of the normal flora in the oral cavity called Candidiasis. This may happen in different circumstances and might be a matter of serious concern by comprising the host immunity in addition to augmented resistance to antifungal drugs. The study was aimed at using various clinical samples for appraising utility of HiCrome Candida Differential Agar to differentiate Candida species isolated. This is to be done on the basis of coloration and colony morphology. The study was conducted with an aim to establish a preliminary picture of the different Candida species causing oral candidiasis of the children by defining the existence and the influencing circumstances of the needs of community-based treatment for oral candidiasis.
Methodology: The study was conducted over a period of two year (January 2018 to December 2019) by collecting 148 number of Candida isolates from oral mucosa and tongue. The samples were being collected from the Dental Unit at Rajshahi Medical College Hospital outdoor which was further examined at the Molecular Pathology Laboratory of the Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Rajshahi. The use of chromogenic agar medium (HiCrome Candida differential agar) speciated the Candida isolates.
Result: Total 148 respondents, 23 of them were less than 1 year of age, 112 of them were between 1-3 years and 13 of them were between 4-6 years of old. The isolation of Candida albicans 140 (94.5%) predominated over non albicans Candida. Non albicans Candida species isolated were Candida tropicalis 108 (72.9%) followed by Candida krusei 68 (45.9%) and Candida parapsilosis 36 (24.3%).
Conclusion: As a convenient and rapid method of identification of Candida species HiCrome Candida differential agar is considered. Candida albicans was the major species isolated in the conducted study and children aged 1-3 year are most susceptible to recurrent oral candidiasis in the study. In choosing the proper antifungal agents, the sensitivity profile of Candida isolates is to be helpful as it may decrease the morbidity and mortality of the patients.
Keywords: Oral Candidiasis; Candida Albicans; HiCrome Candida Differential Agar; Antifungal Susceptibility Test; Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
- Arendrup Maiken Cavling., et al. “Seminational surveillance of fungemia in Denmark: notably high rates of fungemia and numbers of isolates with reduced azole susceptibility”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology9 (2005): 4434-4440.
- Cannon RD and WL Chaffin. "Oral colonization by Candida albicans”. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine3 (1999): 359-383.
- Abad CL and N Safdar. "The role of lactobacillus probiotics in the treatment or prevention of urogenital infections-a systematic review”. Journal of Chemotherapy3 (2009): 243-252.
- Williams David and Michael Lewis. "Pathogenesis and treatment of oral candidosis”. Journal of Oral Microbiology1 (2011): 5771.
- Akpan A and Morgan R. “Oral candidiasis”. Postgraduate Medical Journal 922 (2002): 455-459.
- Kundu RV and Amit Garg. "Yeast infections: candidiasis, tinea (pityriasis) versicolor, and Malassezia (Pityrosporum) folliculitis”. Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. 8th New York: McGraw-Hill (2012): 2298-2307.
- Sivakumar VG., et al. “Use of CHROMagar in the differentiation of common species of Candida”. Mycopathologia1 (2009): 47-49.
- Moran Gary P., et al. “Candida albicans versus Candida dubliniensis: why is albicans more pathogenic?”. International Journal of Microbiology 2012 (2012).
- Samaranayake Lakshman P., et al. “Oral mucosal fungal infections”. Periodontology 2000 1 (2009): 39-59.
- Marcos-Arias Cristina., et al. “In vitro activities of new triazole antifungal agents, posaconazole and voriconazole, against oral Candida isolates from patients suffering from denture stomatitis”. Mycopathologia1 (2012): 35-46.
- Sanitá, Paula Volpato., et al. “Susceptibility profile of a Brazilian yeast stock collection of Candida species isolated from subjects with Candida-associated denture stomatitis with or without diabetes”. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology5 (2013): 562-569.
- Coco BJ., et al. “Mixed Candida albicans and Candida glabrata populations associated with the pathogenesis of denture stomatitis”. Oral Microbiology and Immunology5 (2008): 377-383.
- Leuridan E., et al. “Kinetics of maternal antibodies against rubella and varicella in infants”. Vaccine11 (2011): 2222-2226.
- Leuridan E and P Van Damme. "Passive transmission and persistence of naturally acquired or vaccine-induced maternal antibodies against measles in newborns”. Vaccine34 (2007): 6296-6304.
- Kılıc Atila., et al. “The duration of maternal measles antibodies in children”. Journal of tropical pediatrics5 (2003): 302-305.
- Watanaveeradej Veerachai., et al. “Transplacentally transferred maternal-infant antibodies to dengue virus”. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene2 (2003): 123-128.
- Kumar Sanjeev., et al. “Application of chromagar Candida for identification of clinically important Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility pattern”. International Journal of Biological and Medical Research 4 (2013): 3600-3606.
- Sukumaran Jayapriya., et al. “Changing trend in the clinical distribution of Candida species in a tertiary care hospital”. Journal of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences4 (2012): 222.
- Nadeem., et al. “Use of CHROMagar Candida for the presumptive identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings”. Libyan Journal of Medicine1 (2010).
- Manikandan C and A Amsath. "International Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience” 3 (2013): 23-27.
- Devi L Sumitra and Megha Maheshwari. "Speciation of Candida species isolated from clinical specimens by using Chrom agar and conventional methods”. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications3 (2014): 1-5.
- Daef Enas., et al. “Evaluation of chromogenic media and seminested PCR in the identification of Candida species”. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology1 (2014): 255-262.
- Dharwad Shivanand and Dominic RM Saldanha. "Species identification of Candida isolates in various clinical specimens with their antifungal susceptibility patterns”. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research6 (2012): 1177-1181.