Bacillus Subtilis RP24 a Potential Bioagent for Control of Mango Malformation
Usha K1*, Grover M2 and Singh B3
1Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, New Delhi, India
2Division of Microbiology, New Delhi, India
3CESCRA, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India
*Corresponding Author: Usha K, Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, New Delhi, India.
March 31, 2022; Published: April 29, 2022
Floral malformation induced by Fusarium mangiferae is an intricate disease and major bottleneck hindering mango productivity in different countries. Our study re-confirmed the identity of pathogen Fusarium mangiferae (KF060921) in causing mango malformation disease under North Indian conditions. Various chemical measures employed to control mango malformation have shown limited success. Biological management of plant diseases by using antagonistic microorganisms is considered a viable alternative to chemical control. The present study was initiated with the hypothesis that the bio-control agents Bacillus subtilis RP24 (EF154418), a gram-positive bacterium and Pseudomonas fluorescens (MTCC 9858), a gram-negative bacterium, can efficiently control F. mangiferae induced mango malformation. In vitro studies demonstrated the capability of B. subtilis RP24, and P. fluorescens, in reducing the proliferation of F. mangiferae Both B. subtilis RP24 and P. fluorescens inhibited the growth of F. mangiferae and suppressed the formation of macro conidia and micro conidia, its primary infective propagules. We further observed the expression of ethylene response factor (ERF) gene (450bp), using the semi quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR analysis, in the healthy buds, malformed multiple buds and the malformed multiple buds that were treated with B. subtilis RP24 but no ERF expression was detected in the single swollen malformed buds or the malformed multiple buds that were exposed to P. fluorescens (MTCC 9858). Further, the in vivo studies conducted over three consecutive years revealed the potential of B. subtilis RP24 alone in controlling mango malformation disease (82%) when compared with other treatments and control. Although there is the suggestion of antimicrobial activity by B. subtilis RP24, the in-planta control of F. mangiferae may primarily be associated with competitive exclusion. B. subtilis RP24 further reduced 18% of mango malformation that appeared on mango trees after foliar spray, through the expression of ERF transcription factors that triggered senescence and drying of malformed panicles. Hence manual de-blossoming of malformed panicles normally practiced can be avoided.
Keywords: Mangifera Indica; Floral Malformation; Fusarium Mangiferae; Bacillus Subtilis; Pseudomonas Fluorescens; RT-PCR Analysis; Ethylene Signaling; Senescence
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