Chilling Stress Effects on Structure, Function and Development of Different Plant Processes
Kashir Ali1*, Muhammad Junaid Zaghum2, Zaman Ali1, Muhammad Ussama Javaid1, Muhammad Usman Qayyum1 and Ali Raza1
1Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
2Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
*Corresponding Author: Kashir Ali, Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
January 03, 2022; Published: January 28, 2022
The unprecedented climate change has become a major issue around the globe. Abiotic stress which includes salt, drought, nutrient deficiency, pesticide contamination, light intensity as well as extreme low or high temperature inhibits or slow down many plant processes and ultimately cause the decreased or abnormal growth of the plant. These stresses reduce performance of four complex present in thylakoid membrane photosystem, cytochrome b6-f complex and ATP synthase. In chloroplasts, chilling stress may change the lipid membrane state and enzyme activity. The efficiency of photosynthesis then decreases, resulting in an overabundance of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There is a decline in antioxidant enzyme production, coupled with increased ROS accumulation in plants under environmental stress. A major negative effect has been observed on the activity of RuBisCo with increasing intensity of a range of environmental factors. The reduction in RuBisCo activity is due to the enzyme's activation state being downregulated in response to low temperature (e.g., by de-carbamylation and/or binding of inhibitory sugar phosphates). Chilling stress inhibits RuBisCo activation via a rapid and direct effect on RuBisCo activase. The present review tells how chilling stress can create serious effects on cellular membrane, biosynthesis of photosynthesis pigments, electron transport chain as well as RuBisCo activity.
Keywords: Chilling Stress; Low Temperature; Stress; Rubisco Activity; Environmental Stress
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