Acta Scientific Agriculture (ASAG)(ISSN: 2581-365X)

Review Article Volume 4 Issue 12

A Review on Rice False Smut, it’s Distribution, Identification and Management Practices

Bhanu Dangi1*, Saugat Khanal2 and Shubekshya Shah3

1Sahara Multipurpose Agriculture Farm, Tulsipur, Dang, Nepal
2Faculty of Agriculture, Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal
3Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Nepal

*Corresponding Author: Bhanu Dangi, Sahara Multipurpose Agriculture Farm, Tulsipur, Dang, Nepal.

Received: October 27, 2020; Published: November 21, 2020



  Rice (Oryza sativa) is the major source of food security for most of the population in the world. False smut is recently emerging as a major Rice disease which was previously considered to have a negligible impact. An ascomycetes fungus, Villosiclava virens is the pathogen that causes the False Smut disease of rice. It is found in two different stages sexual and asexual and both spores can infect the spikelet and lead to the formation of smut ball of rice grain. The disease has been reported from all across the world after being reported for the first time in Tamil Nadu by Cooke in 1878. Rice False Smut has been reported to cause 40% of the yield losses and this disease can be controlled with the proper management practices and the control approaches. The disease is found to have linked with the higher nitrogen usages and the occurrence of heavy rainfall during Reproductive stage. Preventive approaches include crop rotation, optimum nitrogen usages, selection of the resistant variety, scheduling of the crop plantation to avoid raining during sensitive stages and field preparation. While control of the disease could be done with different methods, application of fungicides Triûoxystrobin 25%+ Tebuconazole 50% and Propiconazole 25 EC in vitro and in vivo condition showed 100% inhibition to growth of fungal mycelium being the most effective chemical among other contemporary fungicides. Among the different fungicides tested azoxystrobin (18.2%) SC showed better efficacy at 0.1 per cent and enhanced the paddy yield under field condition. The study done by Raji 2016 shows significant control of the False smut using the extract of garlic, turmeric, lantana and Bael, whereas plant oils of lemon grass and cinnamon have completely inhibited the growth of U. virens. Andargie., et al. (2017) reported Antennariella placitae a bio-control agent to be effective against rice false smut (Ustilaginoidea virens) both in vitro and in vivo condition. This review aims to educate about the disease and its effective management strategies.

Keywords: False Smut; Ustilaginoidea virens; Rice Disease, Fungicides, Disease Management



  1. "Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists), Rice (paddy), 2018". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT) (2020).
  2. Agarwal K. In Extended summary: Proc. Intern, Symp. Rice res. New Frontiers, DRR Hyderbad. 18 (1990): 234.
  3. Agarwal KC and Verma H L. “Studies on varietal reaction and losses due to false smut disease of rice”. Jawahar Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya Research Journal 12 (1978): 26-30.
  4. Expert System for Paddy (2019).
  5. Amatya P and Manandhar HK. “Virus Diseases of Rice and Legume Crops in Nepal: Status and Future Strategies”. Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science 19 (1985): 3-13.
  6. Andargie M., et al. “Identification and evaluation of potential bio control fungal endophytes against Ustilaginoidea virens on rice plants”. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology120 (2017).
  7. Ansari M., et al. “Oryza”. 25 (1988): 207-209.
  8. Atia M. “Rice false smut (Ustilaginoidea virens) in Egypt”. Journal of Plant Disease Protection 14 (2004): 71-82.
  9. Brooks SA., et al. “Effect of cultural management practices on the severity of false smut and kernel smut of rice”. Plant Disease 93 (2009): 1202-1208.
  10. Brooks SA., et al. “Influences from long-term crop rotation, soil tillage, and fertility on the severity of rice grain smuts”. Plant Disease 95 (2011): 990-996.
  11. Cartwright R., et al. “Reaction of rice cultivars/lines to false smut, stem rot, and black sheath rot disease”. Arkansas Rice Research Studies (1999): 158-168.
  12. Chhottaray PK. Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Orissa (1991) 175.
  13. Cooke M. “Some extra-European fungi”. Grevillea 7 (1878): 13-15.
  14. Dhindsa H. In: Extended Summary, Proc. Intern. Symp, Rice Res. DRR, Hyderbad (1990): 15-18.
  15. Dhindsa H. Indian Phytopathology 44 (1991): 120-121.
  16. Dhua U., et al. “Precise disease severity assessment for false smut disease of rice”. Journal of Phytopathology 16 (2015): 931-940.
  17. Dodan D and Singh R. “False smut of Rice: Present status”. Agricultural Revolution 4 (1996): 227-240.
  18. Fan J., et al. “Current understanding on Villosiclava virens, a unique flower-infecting fungus causing rice false smut disease”. Molecular Plant Pathology9 (2016): 1321-1330.
  19. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (1952).
  20. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2020).
  21. Guo X., et al. “Progress in the study of false smut disease in rice”. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A (2012): 1211-1217.
  22. Kabir MS., et al. “Rice vision for Bangladesh: 2050 and beyond”. Bangladesh Renal Journal 19 (2015): 1-18.
  23. Kannahi M., et al. “Biological control on rice false smut disease using Trichoderma species”. International Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience 2 (2016): 311-316.
  24. Kaur Y., et al. “Evaluation of rice genotypes for resistance against false smut”. Plant Disease Research1 (2015): 46-49.
  25. Ladhalakshmi D., et al. “Isolation and characterization of Ustilaginoidea virens and survey of false smut disease of rice in India”. Phytoparasitica 2 (2012): 171-176.
  26. Li Y., et al. “Primary studies on rice false smut”. Guangdong Agricultural Sciences 4 (1986): 45-47.
  27. Ludueña R., et al. “Interaction of ustiloxin A with bovine brain tubulin”. Biochemical Pharmacology 9 (1994): 1593-1599.
  28. Mew T W., et al. “Looking ahead in rice disease research and management”. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 23 (2004): 103-127.
  29. Mohiddin FA., et al. “Integrated disease management of false smut of rice caused by Ustilaginoidea virens”. Trends in Biosciences4 (2012): 301-302.
  30. Morwood R. “A preliminary list of plant diseases in Fiji”. Fiji Agricultural Journal 27 (1956): 51-54.
  31. Muniraju KM., et al. “Novel Fungicides for the Management of False Smut Disease of Rice Caused by Ustilaginoidea virens”. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 11 (2017): 2664-2669.
  32. Ou SH. “Diseases of Rice”. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, England. 2 (1985): 306-311.
  33. Patel K., et al. “Effect of nitrogen doses on incidence of false smut of rice”. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology 22 (1992): 260-265.
  34. Raji P., et al. “Evaluation of fungicides against false smut of rice caused by Ustilaginoidea Virens”. International Journal of Applied and Natural Sciences2 (2016): 77-82.
  35. Revilla M. Bot. Estac. Expt. Agric. La Molina, 61 (1955): 1-14.
  36. Rice Knowledge Bank. Your information source for rice farming (2020).
  37. Rush M., et al. “Outbreak of false smut of rice in Louisiana”. Plant Disease 1 (2000): 100.
  38. Sher Singh. Crop Resources 5 (1992): 246-248.
  39. Singh AK and Singh RN. “Screening for resistance to false smut (Ustilaginoidea virens Takahashi) of rice (Oryza sativa L.)”. Indian Journal of Genetics 65 (2005): 49-50.
  40. Singh G P., et al. “Status of false smut (FS) of rice in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India”. IRRN 12 (1987): 28.
  41. Singh R and Dube K. “Assessment of loss in seven rice cultivars due to false smut”. Indian Phytopathology 31 (1978): 186-188.
  42. Singh R., et al. “Status of false smut (FS) of rice in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India”. Rice Research IIRI-Newsletter 12.2 (1987): 28.
  43. Smith Bruce D. The Emergence of Agriculture. Scientific American Library, A Division of HPHLP, New York (1998).
  44. TeBeest DO., et al. “Infection of Rice by the False Smut Fungus, Ustilaginoidea virens”. In: B.R. Wells Rice Research Studies 2010. R. J. Norman, J.F. Meullenet and K.A.K. Moldenhauer, Eds. Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series. 591 (2011): 70-81.
  45. Tripathi S., et al. “In-vitro evaluation of fungicides against Ustilaginoidea virens (Cke.) Takahashi, the incitant of false smut of rice”. International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences 12 (2014): 379-381.
  46. Webster R and Gunnell P. “Compendium of Rice Diseases”. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN (1992).
  47. Yoshino M and Yamamoto T. “Pathogenicity of the chlamydospores of rice false smut”. Agriculture and Horticulture Tokyo, 27 (1952): 291-292.
  48. Zhou Y., et al. “PCR-based specific detection of Ustilaginoidea virens and Ephelis japonica”. Journal of Phytopathology9 (2000): 513-518.
  49. Zhou Y., et al. “Genetic diversity of rice false smut fungus, Ustilaginoidea virens and its pronounced differentiation of populations in North China”. Journal of Phytopathology9 (2008): 559-564.
  50. Zhou L., et al. “Chemistry and biology of mycotoxins from rice false smut pathogen”. In: Melborn BJ, Greene JC, editors. Mycotoxins: Properties, Applications and Hazards. New York, NY, USA: Nova Science Publishers (2012): 109-130.


Citation: Bhanu Dangi., et al. “A Review on Rice False Smut, it’s Distribution, Identification and Management Practices". Acta Scientific Agriculture 4.12 (2020): 48-54.


Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.014

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US