Department of Agriculture, Rural Development, Land and Environmental Affairs, Mpumalanga, South Africa
*Corresponding Author: MD Lengwati, Department of Agriculture, Rural Development, Land and Environmental Affairs, Mpumalanga, South Africa.
Received: February 24, 2020; Published: June 17, 2020
A field experiment was carried out in the 2011/2012 summer cropping season at the Lowveld Research Station, Nelspruit (Bombela), in Mpumalanga province, where five grain legumes planted under field conditions during the planting season 2011 replicated four times as randomized complete block design (RCBD). The grain legume species cultivars for discussion were Bambara-groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) (cv. Brianbeck MB 51), Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) ( cv. JL 24), Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) (cv. Pan 311), Blackgram (Vigna mungo) (Local market seed), and Mungbean (Vigna radiata) (cv. VC 1973A). Recent consideration of essential and other (non-essential and toxic) nutrient elements in crops, both macro- and micro-elements - can cause nutrient imbalances, reduction in growth and yield losses. Beneficial “elements”, they are not required by all plants but can promote plant growth and may be essential for several plant species. Recently, nutrient content is expressed as element content in dry matter (DM) percentages in DM for macro-elements, in DM for micro-elements (also known as ppm= pars pro million, 1 mg per 106 kg). Average concentration ranges of essential nutrient elements in crops, Oxygen (45), Carbon (45), Hydrogen (6), Sulphur (0.1 - 0.4), Chlorine (0.2 - 2.0), Na (Sodium) (0.01 - 10), Silicon (0.2 - 2.0), Manganese (0.1 - 0.4), Calcium (0.2 - 1.0), Potassium (0.2 - 6.0), Phosphorus (0.01 - 0.7), Nitrogen (0.1 - 6.0) and Concentration range percentages in DM Macro-elements Cobalt (0.02). Carbon (C) is ranked along N and P as mineral nutrients that are needed the most by plants for their growth and development. For C3 plants such as grain legumes, C is acquired through the process of photosynthesis and these C compounds play a significant role in the growth and development of C3 plants. However, the disproportionate alteration of the microbial C and N contents led to a distinct decrease of the C:N ratio for mung-bean residues at flowering but no change in the groundnut and Bambara-groundnut treatments. This suggests that the changes in microbial C:N ratio are mainly caused by the ‘recoverable’ residue inputs. Basically, the composition of the C isotopes is compared to that in the air to reveal water-use efficiency of the test plant species during its growth period. Calculated as δ13C, the water-use efficiency provides information on the ability of C3 plants to balance the process of acquiring carbon through the process of photosynthesis in relation to the water that get lost in the process. With regards to grain legumes such as cowpea, Bambara-groundnut, groundnut, mung-bean and black gram, quality residues include that which have a C/N ratio that is < 24 g g-1. There is a need to select crops particular that cultivated by smallholder farmers which can tolerate drought because South Africa has had high temperatures, and evapotranspiration coupled with reduced and scanty rainfall. The implications of future increases in atmospheric CO2 for the productivity of indeterminate C3 crops grown in rain-fed subsistence agricultural systems in the semi‐arid tropics are stress resistance, therefore JL 24 cultivar in the study at Nelspruit, under field conditions manage to have shoot C content of 45% as best performer legume species planted. Plants also affect the residue turnover by excreting easily available organic C and N compounds which can interact directly with the microbial biomass and affect its size, activity, turnover rate or physiological status. However, following this concept, N will be set free from the microbial biomass as microbial residues, the relation between the parameters is difficult to prove because data concerning the residue quality are only available for the ‘recoverable’ residues and not for the rhizo-deposits.
Keywords: Nutrients Contribution; Carbon Assimilation; Grain Legumes; Bambara Groundnut; Groundnut; Cowpeas; Blackgram; Mungbeans
Citation: MD Lengwati. “The Development of Analytical Methodologies and Advances in Plant Physiology, Measurable Amounts of Elements in Nutrients Contribution and Carbon Assimilation by Five Grain Legumes, Bambara Groundnut; Groundnut, Cowpeas, Blackgram and Mungbeans Planted in Mpumalanga province, South Africa during 2011/2012 Season". Acta Scientific Agriculture 4.7 (2020): 67-75.
Copyright: © 2020 MD Lengwati. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.