Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ISSN: 2582-1423)

Perspective Volume 4 Issue 1

MicroRNA Opens up a New World for Nutrition Research

Shaw Watanabe*

President, Asia Pacific Clinical Nutrition Society, Japan

*Corresponding Author: Shaw Watanabe, President, Asia Pacific Clinical Nutrition Society, China.

Received: November 21, 2019; Published: December 05, 2019

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  Several landmark discoveries have deepened our understand-ing of living organisms, for example the structure of the cell, the role of organelles, and the mechanisms of protein synthesis. Re-cent food and health metabolomic research has gone one step beyond classical nutrient-based concepts of nutrition, approach-ing the essence of biology. So far, we have delved into the cause of diseases at the genome and epigenome level. A further step is the discovery of microRNAs (miRNA), and their importance in control-ling health and diseases [1-4]. We are thus closer to understanding the mysteries of life.

  "Small-interfering RNA” were discovered in nematodes in 1993 [1]. Small RNA molecules are made of single-stranded mRNA, and their sequences are complementary to specific mRNA, to which they bind for silencing gene expression. On the other hand, miRNA have partially complementary sequences. They bind to a number of mRNA sequences, and suppress the expression of various genes by physically inhibiting the translation of their mRNA [2-4]. The initial description of miRNA appeared in a paper published in Sci-ence in 2001, and research has been progressing rapidly since then. New types of miRNA are being discovered every year. It ap-pears that miRNAs exist in various types of plants and animals, regardless of species [5-8]. So far, in humans, 2656 miRNAs have been identified with a precise length of 22 bases.

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References

  1. Lee RC., et al. “Elegans heterochronic gene lin-4 encodes small RNAs with antisense complementarity to lin-14”. Cell5 (1993): 843–854.
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  3. Friedman RC., et al. “Most mammalian mRNAs are conserved targets of microRNAs”. Genome Research 1 (2009): 92–105.
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  5. Axtell MJ and Bartel DP. “Antiquity of microRNAs and their targets in land plants”. The Plant Cell6 (2005): 1658–1673.
  6. Axtell MJ., et al. “Vive la différence: biogenesis and evolution of microRNAs in plants and animals”. Genome Biology 12 .4 (2011): 221.
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  8. Heimberg AM., et al. “MicroRNAs and the advent of vertebrate morphological complexity”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America8 (2008): 2946–2950.
  9. Salmena L., et al. “A ceRNA hypothesis: the Rosetta Stone of a hidden RNA language?”. Cell 146 .3 (2011): 353–358.
  10. Kakimoto Y., et al. “MicroRNA Stability in FFPE Tissue Samples: Dependence on GC Content”. PLoS One9 (2016): e0163125.
  11. Kakimoto Y., et al. “MicroRNA deep sequencing reveals chamber-specific miR-208 family expression patterns in the human heart”. International Journal of Cardiology 211 (2016): 43-48.
  12. Boeckel JN., et al. “From heart to toe: heart's contribution on peripheral microRNA levels”. International Journal of Cardiology3 (2014): 616–617.
  13. Phua YL., et al. “Renal stromal miRNAs are required for normal nephrogenesis and glomerular mesangial survival”. Physiological Reports10 (2015): e12537.
  14. Maes OC., et al. “MicroRNA: Implications for Alzheimer Disease and other Human CNS Disorders”. Current Genomics3 (2009): 154–168.
  15. Ochiai T and Yamamoto Y. “Development of micro RNA research”. Igaku-no-Ayumi Tokyo (2019).
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Citation

Citation: Shaw Watanabe. "MicroRNA Opens up a New World for Nutrition Research".Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 4.1 (2020): 38-39.



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