Acta Scientific Cancer Biology

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 1

The Obesity Epidemic and Cancer in India – The Cochin Cancer Research Centre Initiative

PK Prem Ravi Varma1*, Ushasree Warrier2, Jaisy Joseph3, Jancymol Isac4, Anvar Sadath4, Silji K Isac4, Prasanth MK5 and Sreelakshmi Madhu5

1Head of Department, Department of Medical Oncology, Cochin Cancer Research Centre, Government Medical College Compound, HMT Colony, North Kalamassery, Ernakulam, Kerala State, India

2Assistant Professor of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cochin Cancer Research Centre, Government Medical College Compound, HMT Colony, North Kalamassery, Ernakulam, Kerala State, India

3Head Nurse, Cochin Cancer Research Centre, Government Medical College Compound, HMT Colony, North Kalamassery, Ernakulam, Kerala State, India

4Staff Nurse, Cochin Cancer Research Centre, Government Medical College Compound, HMT Colony, North Kalamassery, Ernakulam, Kerala State, India

5Medical Social Worker, Cochin Cancer Research Centre, Government Medical College Compound, HMT Colony, North Kalamassery, Ernakulam, Kerala State, India

*Corresponding Author: PK Prem Ravi Varma, Head of Department, Department of Medical Oncology, Cochin Cancer Research Centre, Government Medical College Compound, HMT Colony, North Kalamassery, Ernakulam, Kerala State, India.

Received: October 30, 2019; Published: December 06, 2019

×

Abstract

  India is a developing country which is in a transitional state of under nutrition due to poverty and obesity due to the industrialization and rapid urbanization. In India, more than 135 million individuals are affected by obesity. Urban population and states with high socio-economic status were found to be having higher obesity prevalence. According to ICMR-INDIAB study 2015, prevalence rate of obesity and central obesity vary from 11.8% to 31.3% and 16.9% - 36.3% respectively. Obesity is one of the main medical and financial burdens for the government. This problem of obesity can be preventable by spreading public awareness about obesity and its health consequences. Governmental agencies should promote the benefits of healthy life style, food habits and physical activity. Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. This is a root and branch review of obesity and cancer.

KeywordsObesity; Cancer Research

×

References

  1. Bray GA. “Obesity: historical development of scientific and cultural ideas”. International Journal of Obesity 14 (1990): 909-926.
  2. Global status report on non-communicable diseases (2014).
  3. World Health Organization -Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio: report of a WHO expert consultation, Geneva, 8-11 2008 (2011).
  4. National Institutes of Health, North American Association for the Study of Obesity. “The Practical guide: identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults (2000)”. NIH Publication Number (2000): 00-4084.
  5. National Family Health Survey, India. Key findings (2015-16) (2018).
  6. D Mishra., et al. “Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and cardiometabolic risk factors: a study among Bhil tribal population from two environmental settings”. Biochemical Genetics (2018):1-20.
  7. SS Ningombam., et al. “Differential distribution and association of FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism with obesity”. a cross-sectional study among two tribal populations of India with East-Asian ancestry Gene 647 (2018): 198-204.
  8. V Kandpal., et al. “An assessment study of CVD related risk factors in a tribal population of India “. BMC Public Health 1 (2016): 434.
  9. SR Joshi., et al. “Prevalence of dyslipidemia in urban and rural India: the ICMR–INDIAB study”. PLoS One5 (2014): e96808.
  10. A Kumar and S Kalra AG. “Metabolic state of the nation: results of the national family health survey-4”. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 4 (2016): 429.
  11. R Pradeepa., et al. “Prevalence of generalized and abdominal obesity in urban and rural India-the ICMR-INDIAB Study (Phase-I) [ICMR-INDIAB-3]”. Indian Journal of Medical Research 2 (2015): 139.
  12. M Das and K Bose. “Presence of high rates of overweight and obesity among adult Marwaris of Howrah, West Bengal: India”. Collegium Antropologicum 1 (1) (2006): 81-86.
  13. V Mohan., et al. “Urban rural differences in prevalence of self-reported diabetes in India—the WHO–ICMR Indian NCD risk factor surveillance”. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 1 (2008): 159-168.
  14. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, National Statistics Family Food 2014. London: DEFRA (2015).
  15. Drewnowski A and Darmon N. “The economics of obesity: dietary energy density and energy cost”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82 (2005): 265S-73S.
  16. Young LR and Nestle M. “Expanding portion sizes in the US marketplace: implications for nutrition counselling”. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 103 (2003): 231-240.
  17. Llewellyn C and Wardle J. “Behavioural susceptibility to obesity: Gene-environment interplay in the development of weight”. Physiology and Behavior 152 (2015): 494-501.
  18. Fischer JP., et al. “A 30-day risk assessment of mastectomy alone compared to immediate breast reconstruction (IBR)”. Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery 48 (2014): 209-215.
  19. Jeevan R., et al. “Socio-economic deprivation and inpatient complication rates following mastectomy and breast reconstruction surgery”. British Journal of Surgery 102 (2015):1064-1070.
  20. Fischer JP., et al. “Impact of obesity on outcomes in breast reconstruction: Analysis of 15,937 patients from the ACS-NSQIP datasets”. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 217 (2013): 656-664.
  21. Fischer JP., et al. “Breast reconstruction in the morbidly obese patient: Assessment of 30-day complications using the 2005 to 2010 National Surgical Quality improvement Program data sets”. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 132 (2013): 750-761.
  22. Fischer JP., et al. “Venous thromboembolism risk in mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction: Analysis of the 2005 to 2011 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data sets”. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 133 (2014): 263e-273e.
  23. DiSipio T., et al. “Incidence of unilateral arm lymphoedema after breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. The Lancet Oncology 14 (2013): 500-515.
  24. Griggs JJ., et al. “Appropriate chemotherapy dosing for obese adult patients with cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline”. Journal of Clinical Oncology 30 (2012): 1553-1561.
  25. Lyman GH and Sparreboom A. “Chemotherapy dosingin overweightand obese patients with cancer”. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 10 (2013):451-459.
  26. Mantarro S., et al. “Risk of severe cardiotoxicity following treatment with trastuzumab: A meta-analysis of randomized and cohort studies of 29,000 women with breast cancer”. Internal and Emergency Medicine 11 (2016): 123-140.
  27. Sestak I., et al. “Effect of body mass index on recurrences in tamoxifen and anastrozole treated women: an exploratory analysis from the ATAC trial”. Journal of Clinical Oncology 28 (2010): 3411-3415.
  28. Bhatnagar AS. “The discovery and mechanism of action of letrozole”. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 1 (2007): 7-17.
  29. Lonning PE. “The potency and clinical efficacy of aromatase inhibitors across the breast cancer continuum”. Annals of Oncology 22 (2011): 503-514.
  30. Pagani O., et al. “Adjuvant exemestane with ovarian suppression in premenopausal breast cancer”. The New England Journal of Medicine 371 (2014):107-118.
  31. Francis PA., et al. “Adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal breast cancer”. The New England Journal of Medicine 372 (2015): 436-446.
  32. Rock CL., et al. “Nutrition and physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors”. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 62 (2012):243-274.
  33. Runowicz CD., et al. “American Cancer Society/ American Society of Clinical Oncology breast cancer survivorship care guideline”. Journal of Clinical Oncology 34 (2016): 611-635.
  34. Curet MJ. “Special problems in laparoscopic surgery. Previous abdominal surgery, obesity, and pregnancy”. Surgical Clinics of North America 80 (2000): 1093-1110.
  35. Dindo D., et al. “Obesity in general elective surgery”. Lancet 361 (2003): 2032-2035.
  36. Griggs JJ., et al. “Appropriate chemotherapy dosing for obese adult patients with cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology practice guideline”. Journal of Clinical Oncology 30 (2012): 1553-1561.
  37. Meyerhardt JA., et al. “Influence of body mass index on outcomes and treatment-related toxicity in patients with colon carcinoma”. Cancer 98 (2003): 484-495.
  38. Meyerhardt JA., et al. “Impact of body mass index on outcomes and treatment-related toxicity in patients with Stage II and III rectal cancer: Findings from Intergroup Trial 0114”. Journal of Clinical Oncology 22 (2004): 648-657.
  39. Ligibel JA., et al. “American Society of Clinical Oncology position statement on obesity and cancer”. Journal of Clinical Oncology 32 (2014): 3568-3574.
  40. Rock CL., et al. “Nutrition and physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors”. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 62 (2012): 243-274.
  41. Schmitz KH., et al. “American College of Sports Medicine roundtable on exercise guidelines for cancer survivors”. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 42 (2010): 1409-1426.
  42. Denlinger CS., et al. “Survivorship: Healthy lifestyles, version 2.2014”. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network 12 (2014):1222-1237.
  43. Meyerhardt JA., et al. “Association of dietary patterns with cancer recurrence and survival in patients with stage III colon cancer”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 298 (2007): 754-764.
  44. Befort CA., et al. “Outcomes of a weight loss intervention among rural breast cancer survivors”. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 132 (2012): 631-639.
  45. Gudzune KA., et al. “Efficacy of commercial weight-loss programs: An updated systematic review”. Annals of Internal Medicine 162 (2015): 501-512.
  46. Marshall SJ., et al. “Translating physical activity recommendations into a pedometer-based step goal: 3000 steps in 30 minutes”. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 36 (2009): 410-415.
  47. Brown JC and Schmitz KH. “The prescription or proscription of exercise in colorectal cancercare”. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 46 (2014): 2202-2209.
  48. Silver JK., et al. “Impairment-driven cancer rehabilitation: An essential component of quality care and survivorship”. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 63 (2013): 295-317.
  49. Renehan AG., et al. “Adiposity and cancer risk: New mechanistic insights from epidemiology”. Nature Reviews Cancer 15 (2015): 484-498.
  50. Alliott EH and Hursting SD. “Obesity and cancer: Mechanistic insights from transdisciplinary studies”. Endocrine-Related Cancer 22 (2015): R365-R386.
  51. Park J., et al. “Obesity and cancer: Mechanisms underlying tumour progression and recurrence”. Nature Reviews Endocrinology 10 (2014): 455-465.
  52. Khandekar MJ., et al. “Molecular mechanisms of cancer development in obesity”. Nature Reviews Cancer 11 (2011): 886-895.
  53. Klopp AH., et al. “Omental adipose tissue-derived stromal cells promote vascularization and growth of endometrial tumors”. Clinical Cancer Research 18 (2012):771-782.
  54. Pope BD., et al. “Microenvironmental control of adipocyte fate and function”. Trends in Cell Biology 26 (2016):745-755.
  55. Acharya S., et al. “Medically inoperable endometrial cancerin patients with a high body mass index (BMI): Patterns of failure after 3-D image-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy”. Radiotherapy and Oncology 118 (2016): 167-172.
  56. Schwarz JK., et al. “Consensus statement for brachytherapy for the treatment of medically inoperable endometrial cancer”. Brachytherapy 14 (2015): 587-599.
  57. Donin NM., et al. “Body mass index and survival in a prospective randomized trial of localized high-risk renal carcinoma”. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 25 (2016): 1326-1332.
  58. Choi Y., et al. “Body mass index and survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma: A clinical based cohort and meta-analysis”. International Journal of Cancer 132 (2013): 625-634.
  59. Hakimi AA., et al. “An epidemiologic and genetic investigation into the obesity paradox in renal cell carcinoma”. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 105 (2013):1862-1870.
  60. MacInnis RJ and English DR. “Body size and composition and prostate cancer risk: Systematic review and meta-regression analysis”. Cancer Causes Control 17 (2006): 989-1003.
  61. Allott EH., et al. “Obesity and Prostate Cancer: Weighing the evidence”. European Urology 63 (2013): 800-809.
  62. Fowke JH., et al. “Associations of body mass index, smoking and alcohol consumption with prostate cancer mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium”. American Journal of Epidemiology 182 (2015): 381-389.
  63. Renehan AG., et al. “Body mass index and incidence of cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies”. Lancet 371 (2008): 569-478.
  64. Hwang HS., et al. “Body mass index as a prognostic factor in Asian patients treated with chemoimmunotherapy for diffuse large B cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified”. Annals of Hematology 94 (2015):1655-1665.
  65. Park S., et al. “Effect of nutritional status on survival outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab-CHOP”. Nutrition and Cancer 66 (2014): 225-233.
  66. Navarro WH., et al. “Effect of body mass index on mortality of patients with lymphoma undergoing autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation”. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 12 (2006): 541-551.
  67. Rodriguez-Abreu D., et al. “Epidemiology of haematological malignancies”. Annals of Oncology 18 (2007): i3-i8.
  68. Wallin A and Larsson SC. “Body mass index and risk of multiple myeloma: A meta-analysis of prospective studies”. European Journal of Cancer 47 (2011): 1606-1615.
  69. Teras LR., et al. “Body size and multiple myeloma mortality: A pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies”. British Journal of Haematology 166 (2014): 667-676.
×

Citation

Citation: PK Prem Ravi Varma., et al. "The Obesity Epidemic and Cancer in India – The Cochin Cancer Research Centre Initiative".Acta Scientific Agriculture 4.1 (2020): 03-11.



Member In



News and Events


  • Submission Timeline for Regular Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is January 30, 2020.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US